I've just released a new assignment feedback/submission plugin for Moodle 2.3+.
It is based on my previous UploadPDF assignment type (that works with Moodle 1.9-2.2) and allows students' work to be annotated within the web browser, before being returned to the student as a PDF. The original submission must be in the form of a PDF for this to work and available annotations include comment boxes, lines (freehand and straight), boxes, ovals, highlights and image stamps.
As I write this, the plugin is still officially in 'beta', as it is only just finished and hasn't had extensive testing yet, but I'm hoping that user feedback will allow any bugs that do exist to be quickly fixed.
More details (and download links) can be found at https://moodle.org/plugins/view.php?plugin=assignsubmission_pdf and https://moodle.org/plugins/view.php?plugin=assignfeedback_pdf (note that both parts are required for this to work).