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(1469-1527) Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher of the Renaissance. His greatest work is The Prince, a book of political advice to rulers in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book was used to defend policies of despotism and tyranny. Machiavelli wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power, or that
(1480?-1521) Spanish explorer who was the first to circumnavigate the globe.
A document granting rights to both the Church in England and the Nobility signed by King John in 1215. This is considered to be the beginnings of British democracy.
Mandate of Heaven
Divine right of rule in China.
(1918 - )A black South African leader who protested the policy of Apartheid and spent over thirty years in prison before becoming the first black president of South Africa.
Economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord
(1254-1324) Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period.
An enlightened Despot who ruled the Austrian Empire.
An economy that operates by voluntary exchange in a free market and is not planned or controlled by a central authority; a capitalistic economy.
Economic aid from the United States used to rebuild Europe after World War II. Named after United States Secretary of State George Marshall.
The manufacturing of products on a large scale, usually through the use of machines.
The killing of large numbers of people
Relating to, based on, or tracing ancestral descent through the maternal line
Revolutionary group in Kenya who used violent means to force out European settlers.
(?-286 BCE) First king of the Maurya dynasty in India.
(1805-1872), Nationalistic leader in Italy, who started a group called Young Italy in 1831. Young Italy was a nationalistic movement that wanted to end foreign control of Italy.
A city in Saudi Arabia where Muslims must make a pilgrimage at least once in their life.
The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.
(371?-289 BCE), Chinese philosopher, who studied Confucianism. He later refined many of the ideas and spread them across China. Also known as Mengzi, or Meng-tzu.
(3100? BCE) King of Upper Egypt, united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt
The policy of building a nation's wealth by exporting more goods than it imports. Colonies are instrumental in this policy as they supply their parent nations with raw materials that are used to produce finished goods, and then exported back to the colonies. Colonies not only served as a source for the raw materials, but also as an exclusive market for the parent country.
A person who sells goods or services. A member of the middle class in most societies.
In colonial Latin America, Spanish/Native America who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
Time period in European history between the fall of Rome in 476 C.E. and the beginning of the Italian Renaissance in the early 15th century.
Geo-Political designation of the area stretching from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the western side of the Indian subcontinent. Consists of countries such as Israel, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt.
Middle Kingdom (China)
Term that ancient China used to refer to themselves. The believed they were the center of the Earth, or the Middle Kingdom.
Middle Kingdom (Egypt)
The mass movement of people from one area to another.
Political policy that is dominated by the military and the competitive buildup of arms.
The armed forces of a nation.
(1941- ) Former Yugoslavian President. He fought to keep non-Serbs from breaking away from Yugoslavia. During the 1990s, he used his army to terrorize ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, who were asking for self rule. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) finally put a stop to this violence, and Milosevic has since been arrested and awaits trial for war crimes.
A small group of people from a larger group.
A person who spreads the teachings of a religion.
An Economic system that allows for the simultaneous operation of publicly and privately owned enterprise.
(1295) English Parliament where bishops and abbots, peers, two knights from each shire, and two representatives from each town all met in modern format for the first time.
To change something to make it conform to modern standards
Prophet of Allah; founder of Islam.
A famous Renaissance painting by Leonardo Da Vinci.
A state ruled or headed by a monarch.
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch.
The belief in one god or goddess.
(1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference.
A domed Islamic religious building.
movable type printing machines
A printing machine that used individual letters that could be moved after each printing. This allowed for faster and easier printing.
In Islam, one who issues a call to prayer, causing the faithful to gather at the local Mosque.
In colonial Latin America, Spanish/African who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
A company that does business in more than one country, usually by setting up branch offices.
The process of preserving a corpse by removing the moisture from it before burial. This process was practiced by many different cultures.
Handheld weapon that uses small balls of lead as projectiles and gunpowder as the blasting agent.
Nationalist movement in India by the Islamic population who did not feel represented by the Indian National Congress. They initially formed to protexct Muslim rights, but later called for an independent state.
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.