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M

Machiavelli, Niccolo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1469-1527) Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher of the Renaissance. His greatest work is The Prince, a book of political advice to rulers in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book was used to defend policies of despotism and tyranny. Machiavelli wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power, or that
 

Magellan, Ferdinand

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1480?-1521) Spanish explorer who was the first to circumnavigate the globe.
 

Magna Carta

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A document granting rights to both the Church in England and the Nobility signed by King John in 1215. This is considered to be the beginnings of British democracy.
 

Mahabharata

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Hindu epic poem that was written in Sanskrit in the 5th century BCE. Its most important part is the Bhagavad-Gita.
 

Mali

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert. Greatest ruler was Mansa Musa, who converted to Islam and made a famous pilgrimage.
 

mandate

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A territory that was given to a European nation to administer by the League of Nations following the end of World War I.
 

Mandate of Heaven

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Divine right of rule in China.
 

Mandela, Nelson

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1918 - )A black South African leader who protested the policy of Apartheid and spent over thirty years in prison before becoming the first black president of South Africa.
 

manorialism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord
 

Mansa Musa

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East.
 

Mao Zedong

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People
 

Marco Polo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1254-1324) Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period.
 

Maria Teresa

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An enlightened Despot who ruled the Austrian Empire.
 

market economy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An economy that operates by voluntary exchange in a free market and is not planned or controlled by a central authority; a capitalistic economy.
 

Marshall Plan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Economic aid from the United States used to rebuild Europe after World War II. Named after United States Secretary of State George Marshall.
 

Marx, Karl

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1818-1883), German political philosopher and writer. Coauthor with Friedrich Engels of The Communist Manifesto which described the new philosophy of scientific socialism, which is the basis for modern communism.
 

mass production

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The manufacturing of products on a large scale, usually through the use of machines.
 

massacre

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The killing of large numbers of people
 

Matrilineal

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 

Relating to, based on, or tracing ancestral descent through the maternal line

 

Mau Mau

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Revolutionary group in Kenya who used violent means to force out European settlers.
 

Maurya Dynasty

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(321? BCE - 185? BCE) Dynasty that united most of India under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya. Its greatest ruler, Asoka, converted to Buddhism and was instrumental in its spread.
 

Maurya, Chandragupta

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(?-286 BCE) First king of the Maurya dynasty in India.
 

Mayans

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A Mesoamerican civilization of Central America and southern Mexico. Achievements include mathematics, architecture, and a 365 day a year calendar. They flourished between the 4th and 12th centuries C.E..
 

Mazzini, Guiseppe

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1805-1872), Nationalistic leader in Italy, who started a group called Young Italy in 1831. Young Italy was a nationalistic movement that wanted to end foreign control of Italy.
 

Mecca

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A city in Saudi Arabia where Muslims must make a pilgrimage at least once in their life.
 

Meiji

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1852-1912) Emperor of Japan from 1867 to 1912. He was responsible for the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the rapid modernization and industrialization of Japan.
 

Meiji Restoration

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.
 

Mencius

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(371?-289 BCE), Chinese philosopher, who studied Confucianism. He later refined many of the ideas and spread them across China. Also known as Mengzi, or Meng-tzu.
 

Menes

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(3100? BCE) King of Upper Egypt, united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt
 

mercantilism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The policy of building a nation's wealth by exporting more goods than it imports. Colonies are instrumental in this policy as they supply their parent nations with raw materials that are used to produce finished goods, and then exported back to the colonies. Colonies not only served as a source for the raw materials, but also as an exclusive market for the parent country.
 

merchant

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who sells goods or services. A member of the middle class in most societies.
 

Mesoamerican

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A region of Central America, Mexico, and South America where several pre-Columbian civilizations lived including the Maya, Inca, and Aztecs.
 

messiah

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
According to the Hebrew Bible, an anointed king who will lead the Jews back to the land of Israel and establish justice in the world. According to the Christians, the Messiah was Jesus Christ.
 

Mestizos

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In colonial Latin America, Spanish/Native America who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
 

Mexican Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1910
 

Michelangelo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
 

Middle Ages

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Time period in European history between the fall of Rome in 476 C.E. and the beginning of the Italian Renaissance in the early 15th century.
 

middle class

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Social and economic class usually composed of merchants, artisans, and business people. In some societies, the richest class, but without a title of nobility. The middle class is usually the backbone of society as they are generally more moderate in their economic, social, and political habits.
 

Middle East

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Geo-Political designation of the area stretching from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the western side of the Indian subcontinent. Consists of countries such as Israel, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt.
 

Middle Kingdom (China)

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Term that ancient China used to refer to themselves. The believed they were the center of the Earth, or the Middle Kingdom.
 

Middle Kingdom (Egypt)

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(2040 BCE
 

migration

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The mass movement of people from one area to another.
 

militarism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Political policy that is dominated by the military and the competitive buildup of arms.
 

military

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The armed forces of a nation.
 

Milosevic, Slobodan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1941- ) Former Yugoslavian President. He fought to keep non-Serbs from breaking away from Yugoslavia. During the 1990s, he used his army to terrorize ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, who were asking for self rule. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) finally put a stop to this violence, and Milosevic has since been arrested and awaits trial for war crimes.
 

minority

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A small group of people from a larger group.
 

missionary

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who spreads the teachings of a religion.
 

Mixed Economy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An Economic system that allows for the simultaneous operation of publicly and privately owned enterprise.
 

Model Parliament

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1295) English Parliament where bishops and abbots, peers, two knights from each shire, and two representatives from each town all met in modern format for the first time.
 

modernization

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
To change something to make it conform to modern standards
 

Mohammed

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Prophet of Allah; founder of Islam.
 

Moksha

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Hinduism, it is the release from the cycle of reincarnation through unification with Brahma.
 

Mona Lisa

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A famous Renaissance painting by Leonardo Da Vinci.
 

monarch

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 

A state ruled or headed by a monarch.

 

monarchy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch.
 

monotheism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The belief in one god or goddess.
 

Monroe Doctrine

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference.
 

Moses

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
He is considered a founder of Judaism due to his role in the liberation of the Hebrews from Egypt, and his delivery of the Ten Commandments from Mount Sinai sometime around 2000 BCE.
 

mosque

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A domed Islamic religious building.
 

movable type printing machines

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A printing machine that used individual letters that could be moved after each printing. This allowed for faster and easier printing.
 

Muezzin

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Islam, one who issues a call to prayer, causing the faithful to gather at the local Mosque.
 

mulattoes

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In colonial Latin America, Spanish/African who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
 

multinational company

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A company that does business in more than one country, usually by setting up branch offices.
 

mummification

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The process of preserving a corpse by removing the moisture from it before burial. This process was practiced by many different cultures.
 

musket

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Handheld weapon that uses small balls of lead as projectiles and gunpowder as the blasting agent.
 

Muslim League

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nationalist movement in India by the Islamic population who did not feel represented by the Indian National Congress. They initially formed to protexct Muslim rights, but later called for an independent state.
 

Mussolini, Benito

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
 


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