A change made to survive an environment or to overcome a disadvantage.
The science that studies mankind, especially it's origin, development, divisions, and customs.
Studies the lives of early peoples by analyzing the objects left behind by ancient civilizations.
A marriage where the marital partners are choosen by others based on considerations other than pre-existing mutual attractions of the partners.
Belief in a reverence for a supernatural power or powers reguarded as creator and governor of the universe.
A readily salable crop that is grown and gethered for the market.
The type of culture and society developed by a particular nation or region.(e.g., The Maya or the
When a culture spreads to an area around it and makes a noticable difference in other cultures. (e.g., Latin was spoken in the Roman Empire, and Latin became the basis of all modern romance languages).
Government by people exercised either directly or through elected representstives.
the office or
Social science that deals with production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services and with the theory and management of economies or economic systems.
Respect for ones elders especially the family.
The office, function, or authority of a governing individual or body.
the act of killing an infant
An economy that operates by voluntary exchange in a free market and is not planned or controlled by a central authority; a capitalistic economy.
Relating to, based on, or tracing ancestral descent through the maternal line
An Economic system that allows for the simultaneous operation of publicly and privately owned enterprise.
A state ruled or headed by a monarch.
Resources that are supplied by nature. Nations often use these to increase their economic output, usually with little regard to environmental factors. A growing environmentalist movement is beginning to apply pressure to these governments by forcing a public officilals to discuss these issues.
The introduction of agriculture, domesticating animals, this leads to the development of human civilazation.
A family unit consisting a mother, father and their children.
Government by a few, especially by a small fraction of persons or families.
Discrimination or prejudice based on race.
tools and skills people use (i.e. computers and machines assist in research and production)
Totalitarianism- Of or relating to the government haveing total controll of of ones life
Economic system in which decisions are made on the
The organization, culture, or beliels of a tribe.
Filippo Brunelleschi, (1377 - 1446), was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. His most famous works are all in Florence. His masterpiece is the high, octagonal-ribbed dome of the Duomo (cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore), completed in 1434, the first notable dome erected in Italy since antiquity. Brunelleschi was trained as a sculptor in a Florentine workshop and was a member of the goldsmiths' guild. In the competition for the second set of doors for the Florentine Baptistry, he virtually tied with Ghiberti, who executed the famous "Doors of Paradise." He may have worked in Rome with his friend Donatello. His interests extended to mathematics and engineering and the study of ancient monuments. He made early experiments with perspective in painting, and invented hydraulic machinery and elaborate clockwork, none of which survives. Above all Brunelleschi is remembered as an architect who established new classic canons of serene rhythms, clear geometry, and symmetry, often using the simplest materials: gray pietra serena and whitewashed plaster.
FIRST GLOBAL AGE
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch, who has absolute control.
Communist Manifesto, The
A book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that describes the new political system of scientific socialism, which becomes the basis for communism. The book states that all of human history is based on the conflict between the bourgeoisie (those who own the means of production) and the proletariat (working class), and predicted that the proletariat would rise up in a violent revolution to overthrow the bourgeoisie and create a society with an equal distribution of goods and services.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper.
Lorenzo de' Medici
Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici (January 1, 1449 - 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the height of the Italian Renaissance. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent (il Magnifico) by his contemporary Florentines, he had a very active life and was an avid patron of the arts; he was also fascinated by technology. However, he was also a very religious man, one who deeply loved his country.
Lorenzo's support for artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Andrea del Verrocchio and Michelangelo Buonarroti was instrumental in the development of Florence as the epicenter of 15th century Renaissance Europe. Although his financial straits made it impossible for him to commission many works himself, he saw to it that they received commissions from other patrons.
Niccol๒ Machiavelli (May 3, 1469
A member of a Western Christian church whose faith and practice are founded on the principles of the Reformation, especially in the acceptance of the Bible as the sole source of revelation, in justification by faith alone, and in the universal priesthood of all the believers, and refers to the theologies of Luther, Calvin, or Zwingli.
The humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning that originated in Italy in the 14th century and later spread throughout Europe.
Rain that contains pollutants due to the burning of fossil fuels. It is damaging to the environment.
A chain of islands (e.g., Hawaii, Indonesia, Japan).
A body of water partly surrounded by land but having a wide outlet to the sea.
The average weather conditions of a certain region.
A land mass surrounded by water.
Entirely, or almost entirely surrounded by land.
Belief in a reverence for a supernatural power or
African Trading Kingdoms
Akbar the Great
Islamic mathematician who pioneered the study of algebra. His textbook on the subject became a standard in European universities for centuries.
The first age of the world, an untroubled and prosperous era during which people lived in ideal happiness.
check and balance
Document written by Martin Luther detailing what he believed to be the problems in the medieval Church.
Luther's action was in great part a response to the selling of indulgences by Johann Tetzel, a Dominican priest, commissioned by the Archbishop of Mainz and Pope Leo X. The purpose of this fundraising campaign was to finance the building of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Even though Luther's prince, Frederick the Wise, and the prince of the neighboring territory, Duke George of Saxony, forbade the sale in their lands, Luther's parishioners traveled to purchase them. When these people came to confession, they presented the indulgence, claiming they no longer had to repent of their sins, since the document forgave all their sins.
Traditionally, Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517.
RELIGIONS & BELIEF SYSTEMS
The first patriarch in the Bible. Abraham was asked by God to sacrifice his son, Isaac, and was rewarded for being prepared to do so. He is considered by Jewish people as the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac, and by Muslims as the father of Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
In Hinduism, it is the principal of non violence against all living things.
Professing belief in Jesus as Christ or following the religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus.