Envisioning the use of online tests in assessing twenty-first century learning: a literature review https://telrp.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s41039-017-0055-7
"This paper draws on the literature to explore the role of online tests
in higher education, particularly their relationship to student learning
in a digital and changing world, and the issues and challenges they
present. We conclude that online tests, when used effectively, can be
valuable in the assessment of twenty-first century learning and we
synthesise the literature to extract principles for the optimisation of
online tests in a digital age."