Brian, Did you figure it out?
I can think of many ways to deal with your goal: you want the student to receive a certain score before entering the next lesson.
The simple way is to tell the student they can take the lesson many times but must receive a min score before they can go on. This is what we do. We set number of attempts per question to 1, because we are mean and do not like speed clickers.
You could set the max number of attempts to a high number. When the student selects the wrong answer, the jump is set to "This page". They now have the opportunity to select the same or a different answer. This can repeat for as many times as you set the max number of attempts.
Lesson has both a score, a jump and a response associated with every answer in a M/C. The response will differ with the quesiton type. I would not turn on the Flow Control option to use the default feedback. Thus wrong answers that jump to "This page" should have a response that gives some hints to the student (this was also a goal of yours). Correct answers will need anything entered in as a response, although you are missing a reinforcement opportunity and assume they student did not guess at the correct answer.
I would not use the Flow control "Provide option to take it again", it is confusing both to the teacher and to the student. You would use it if say you had custom scoring on and all answer jumps moved the student forward. There is no reason to turn this on if you are both sending the student back to the question AND giving them a hint. Besides the default feedback is set at the site level in the language.
Since you want a custom response, you could turn on "Student review", but I do not see the point in your case. Because, when the jumps are set tos so an incorrect answer goes to "This page", it does not matter which of the two buttons they push (ie "Continue" or "Yes I would like to try again"), they are going to go back to "This page". They will see the response when they see the option to return or continue. If the jumps were set to go continue on with the next question or page, then this might increase students' scores.
If you do not want to allow a student to retake a lesson, then you really need to focus upon what you are telling the student when they select an incorrect answer. You also have to pay attention to the number of attempts you allow. If you set it to 1, then going back to "This page" will not work.
Hopes this helps. In short, I would not turn on most of the flow control settings except the number of attempts for a question. You are overthinking things