Certification

Linux Professional Institute (LPI) Certification

The Linux Professional Institute currently has two levels of certification, Junior Level Administration (LPIC1) and Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC2). At the time of writing the Senior Level Administration (LPIC3) course was still being developed. Visit this sitefor the latest information. The following section will describe the certification methods and pre-requisite knowledge that is needed to gain the LPI certifications.

Junior Level Administration (LPIC1)

Status: Available since January 2000, latest revision done in March 2003 Pre-requisite Knowledge: none Requirements: Pass exam 101 and 102 Job description of a person with this certification:

  • Work at the Linux command line

  • Perform easy maintenance tasks: help out users, add users to a larger system, backup & restore, shutdown & reboot

  • Install and configure a workstation (including X) and connect it to a LAN, or a stand-alone PC via modem to the Internet.

LPI exam 101 Details
Topic 101 Hardware and Architecture

Table 1. LPI exam 101: Hardware and Architecture

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
1Fundamental BIOS SettingsCandidates should be able to configure fundamental system hardware by making the correct settings in the system BIOS. This objective includes a proper understanding of BIOS configuration issues such as the use of LBA on IDE hard disks larger than 1024 cylinders, enabling or disabling integrated peripherals, as well as configuring systems with (or without) external peripherals such as keyboards. It also includes the correct setting for IRQ, DMA and I/O addresses for all BIOS administrated ports and settings for error handling./proc/ioports /proc/interrupts /proc/dma /proc/pci
1Configure Modem and Sound cardsEnsure devices meet compatibility requirements (particularly that the modem is NOT a win-modem), verify that both the modem and sound card are using unique and correct IRQ's, I/O, and DMA addresses, if the sound card is PnP install and run sndconfig and isapnp, configure modem for outbound dial-up, configure modem for outbound PPP | SLIP | CSLIP connection, set serial port for 115.2 KbpsNot applicable
1Setup SCSI DevicesCandidates should be able to configure SCSI devices using the SCSI BIOS as well as the necessary Linux tools. They also should be able to differentiate between the various types of SCSI. This objective includes manipulating the SCSI BIOS to detect used and available SCSI IDs and setting the correct ID number for different devices especially the boot device. It also includes managing the settings in the computer's BIOS to determine the desired boot sequence if both SCSI and IDE drives are used.SCSI ID /proc/scsi/ scsi_info
1Configure Communication DevicesCandidates should be able to install and configure different internal and external communication devices like modems, ISDN adapters, and DSL switches. This objective includes verification of compatibility requirements (especially important if that modem is a winmodem), necessary hardware settings for internal devices (IRQs, DMAs, I/O ports), and loading and configuring suitable device drivers. It also includes communication device and interface configuration requirements, such as the right serial port for 115.2 Kbps, and the correct modem settings for outbound PPP connection(s)./proc/dma /proc/interrupts /proc/ioports setserial(8)
1Configure USB devicesCandidates should be able to activate USB support, use and configure different USB devices. This objective includes the correct selection of the USB chipset and the corresponding module. It also includes the knowledge of the basic architecture of the layer model of USB as well as the different modules used in the different layers. Key files, terms, and utilities include:lspci(8) usb-uhci.o usb-ohci.o /etc/usbmgr/ usbmodules /etc/hotplug
3Setup different PC expansion cardsCandidates should be able to configure various cards for the various expansion slots. They should know the differences between ISA and PCI cards with respect to configuration issues. This objective includes the correct settings of IRQs, DMAs and I/O Ports of the cards, especially to avoid conflicts between devices. It also includes using isapnp if the card is an ISA P P*pT OK oe: Wed, 18 Feb 2004 10:14:08 GMT Server: Apache/2.0.48 (Win32) PHP/4.3.4 X-Powered-By: PHP/4.3.4 Set-Cookie: MoodleSession=70ce3bde5c98482809872e23996d5955; path=/ Expires: Thu, 19 Nov 1981 08:52:00 GMT Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0 Pragma: no-cache Transfer-Encoding: chunked Content-Type: text/html; charset=iso-8859-1 56 32 The Shuttleworth Foundation's Linux Learning Guide 30 a4 2d 2 2 e 1 8e
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Topic 102 Linux Installation & Package Management

Table 2. LPI exam 101: Linux Installation & Package Management

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
1Install a boot managerCandidate should be able to select, install, and configure a boot manager. This objective includes providing alternative boot locations and backup boot options (for example, using a boot floppy)./etc/lilo.conf /boot/grub/grub.conf lilo grub-install MBR superblock first stage boot loader
3Manage shared librariesCandidates should be able to determine the shared libraries that executable programs depend on and install them when necessary. Candidates should be able to state where system libraries are kept.ldd ldconfig /etc/ld.so.conf LD_LIBRARY_PATH
5Design hard disk layoutCandidates should be able to design a disk partitioning scheme for a Linux system. This objective includes allocating filesystems or swap space to separate partitions or disks, and tailoring the design to the intended use of the system. It also includes placing /boot on a partition that conforms with the BIOS' requirements for booting./ (root) filesystem /var filesystem /home filesystem swap space mount points partitions cylinder 1024
5Make and install programs from sourceCandidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources. Candidates should be able to make simple customizations to the Makefile, for example changing paths or adding extra include directories.gunzip gzip bzip2 tar configure make
8Use Debian package managementCandidates should be able to perform package management skills using the Debian package manager. This objective includes being able to use command-line and interactive tools to install, upgrade, or uninstall packages, as well as find packages containing specific files or software (such packages might or might not be installed). This objective also includes being able to obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and installation status (whether or not the package is installed).unpack configure /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg /var/lib/dpkg/* /etc/apt/apt.conf /etc/apt/sources.list dpkg dselect dpkg-reconfigure apt-get alien
8Use Red Hat Package Manager (RPM)Candidates should be able to perform package ' management under Linux distributions that use RPMs for package distribution. This objective includes being able to install, re-install, upgrade, and remove packages, as well as obtain status and version information on packages. This objective also includes obtaining package information such as version, status, dependencies, integrity, and signatures. Candidates should be able to determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from./etc/rpmrc /usr/lib/rpm/* rpm grep
Topic 103: GNU & Unix Commands

Table 3. LPI exam 101: GNU & Unix Commands

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
1Perform basic file editing operations using viCandidates should be able to edit text files using vi. This objective includes vi navigation, basic vi nodes, inserting, editing, deleting, copying, and finding text.vi /, ? h,j,k,l G, H, L i, c, d, dd, p, o, a ZZ, :w!, :q!, :e! :!
3Modify process execution prioritiesCandidates should should be able to manage process execution priorities. Tasks include running a program with higher or lower priority, determining the priority of a process and changing the priority of a running process.nice ps renice top
3Perform basic file managementCandidates should be able to use the basic UNIX commands to copy, move, and remove files and directories. Tasks include advanced file management operations such as copying multiple files recursively, removing directories recursively, and moving files that meet a wildcard pattern. This includes using simple and advanced wildcard specifications to refer to files, as well as using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time.cp find mkdir mv ls rm rmdir touch file globbing
3Search text files using regular expressionsCandidates should be able to manipulate files and text data using regular expressions. This objective includes creating simple regular expressions containing several notational elements. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.grep regexp sed
5Work on the command lineCandidates should be able to Interact with shells and commands using the command line. This includes typing valid commands and command sequences, defining, referencing and exporting environment variables, using command history and editing facilities, invoking commands in the path and outside the path, using command substitution, applying commands recursively through a directory tree a @&pT OK oe: Wed, 18 Feb 2004 10:14:08 GMT Server: Apache/2.0.48 (Win32) PHP/4.3.4 X-Powered-By: PHP/4.3.4 Set-Cookie: MoodleSession=70ce3bde5c98482809872e23996d5955; path=/ Expires: Thu, 19 Nov 1981 08:52:00 GMT Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0 Pragma: no-cache Transfer-Encoding: chunked Content-Type: text/html; charset=iso-8859-1 56 32 The Shuttleworth Foundation's Linux Learning Guide 30 a4 2d 2 2 e 1 8e
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51 4 3b 8l\o x 0 o o o oo x  k?@ 'pT ding P*tscript, non-postscript, and Samba printers.
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Topic 108: Documentation

Table 9. LPI Exam 102: Documentation

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
3Find Linux documentation on the InternetCandidates should be able to find and use Linux documentation. This objective includes using Linux documentation at sources such as the Linux Documentation Project (LDP), vendor and third-party websites, newsgroups, newsgroup archives, and mailing lists.Not applicable
4Use and manage local system documentationCandidates should be able to use and administer the man facility and the material in /usr/share/doc/. This objective includes finding relevant man pages, searching man page sections, finding commands and man pages related to them, and configuring access to man sources and the man system. It also includes using system documentation stored in /usr/share/doc/ and determining what documentation to keep in /usr/share/doc/.MANPATH man apropos whatis
1Notify users on system-related issuesCandidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system. This objective includes automating the communication process, e.g. through logon messages./etc/issue /etc/issue.net /etc/motd
Topic 109:

Table 10. LPI Exam 102: Shells, Scripting, Programming and Compiling

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
    
3Customize or write simple scriptsCandidate should be able to customize existing scripts, or write simple new (ba)sh scripts. This objective includes using standard sh syntax (loops, tests), using command substitution, testing command return values, testing of file status, and conditional mailing to the superuser. This objective also includes making sure the correct interpreter is called on the first (#!) line of scripts. This objective also includes managing location, ownership, execution and suid-rights of scripts.while for test chmod
5Customize and use the shell environmentCandidate should be able to customize shell P*ronments to meet users' needs. This objective includes setting environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell. It also includes writing bash functions for frequently used sequences of commands.~/.bash_profile ~/.bash_login ~/.profile ~/.bashrc ~/.bash_logout ~/.inputrc function (Bash built-in command) export env set (Bash built-in command) unset (Bash built-in command)
Topic 111: Administrative Tasks

Table 11. LPI Exam 102: Administrative Tasks

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
3Configure and use system log files to meet administrative and security needsCandidate should be able to configure system logs. This objective includes managing the type and level of information logged, manually scanning log files for notable activity, monitoring log files, arranging for automatic rotation and archiving of logs and tracking down problems noted in logs./etc/syslog.conf /var/log/* logrotate tail -f
3Tune the user environment and system environment variablesCandidate should be able to modify global and user profiles. This includes setting environment variables, maintaining skel directories for new user accounts and setting command search path with the proper directory./etc/profile /etc/skel env export set unset
4Manage users and group accounts and related system filesCandidate should be able to add, remove, suspend and change user accounts. Tasks include to add and remove groups, to change user/group info in passwd/group databases. The objective also includes creating special purpose and limited accounts. Key files, terms, and utilities include:/etc/passwd /etc/shadow /etc/group /etc/gshadow chage gpasswd groupadd groupdel groupmod grpconv grpunconv passwd pwconv pwunconv useradd userdel usermod
4Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs to run in the futureCandidate should be able to use cron or anacron to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time. Task include managing cron and at jobs and configuring user access to cron and at services./etc/anacrontab /etc/at.deny /etc/at.allow /etc/crontab /etc/cron.allow /etc/cron.deny /var/spool/cron/* at atq atrm crontab
4Maintain an effective data backup strategyCandidate should be able to plan a backup strategy and backup filesystems automatically to various media. Tasks include dumping a raw device to a file or vice versa, performing partial and manual backups, verifying the integrity of backup f opT tial @&r fully restoring backups.cpio dd dump restore tar
4Maintain system timeCandidate should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock over NTP. Tasks include setting the system date and time, setting the BIOS clock to the correct time in UTC, configuring the correct timezone for the system and configuring the system to correct clock drift to match NTP clock./usr/share/zoneinfo /etc/timezone /etc/localtime /etc/ntp.conf /etc/ntp.drift date hwclock ntpd ntpdate
Topic 112:

Table 12. LPI Exam 102: Networking Fundamentals

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
3Configure Linux as a PPP clientCandidates should understand the basics of the PPP protocol and be able to configure and use PPP for outbound connections. This objective includes the definition of the chat sequence to connect (given a login example) and the setup commands to be run automatically when a PPP connection is made. It also includes initialisation and termination of a PPP connection, with a modem, ISDN or ADSL and setting PPP to automatically reconnect if disconnected./etc/ppp/options.* /etc/ppp/peers/* /etc/wvdial.conf /etc/ppp/ip-up /etc/ppp/ip-down wvdial pppd
4Fundamentals of TCP/IPCandidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of network fundamentals. This objective includes the understanding of IP-addresses, network masks and what they mean (i.e. determine a network and broadcast address for a host based on its subnet mask in "dotted quad" or abbreviated notation or determine the network address, broadcast address and netmask when given an IP-address and number of bits). It also covers the understanding of the network classes and classless subnets (CIDR) and the reserved addresses for private network use. It includes the understanding of the function and application of a default route. It also includes the understanding of basic internet protocols (IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP) and the more common TCP and UDP ports (20, 21, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 119, 139, 143, 161)./etc/services ftp telnet host ping dig traceroute whois
7TCP/IP configuration and troubleshootingCandidates should be able to view, change and verify configuration settings and operational status for various network interfaces. This objective includes manual and automatic configuration of interfaces and routing tables. This especially means to add, start, stop, restart, delete or reconfigure network interfaces. It also means to change, view or configure the routing table and to corr @&an improperly set default route manually. Candidates should be able to configure Linux as a DHCP client and a TCP/IP host and to debug problems associated with the network configuration./etc/HOSTNAME or /etc/hostname /etc/hosts /etc/networks /etc/host.conf /etc/resolv.conf /etc/nsswitch.conf ifconfig route dhcpcd, dhcpclient, pump host hostname (domainname, dnsdomainname) netstat ping traceroute tcpdump the network scripts run during system initialization.
Topic 113: Networking Services

Table 13. LPI Exam 102: Networking Services

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
4Setup and configure basic DNS servicesCandidate should be able to configure hostname lookups and troubleshoot problems with local caching-only name server. Requires an understanding of the domain registration and DNS translation process. Requires understanding key differences in configuration files for bind 4 and bind 8./etc/hosts /etc/resolv.conf /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/named.boot (v.4) or /etc/named.conf (v.8) named
4Configure and manage inetd, xinetd, and related servicesCandidates should be able to configure which services are available through inetd, use tcpwrappers to allow or deny services on a host-by-host basis, manually start, stop, and restart internet services, configure basic network services including telnet and ftp. Set a service to run as another user instead of the default in inetd.conf./etc/inetd.conf /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny /etc/services /etc/xinetd.conf /etc/xinetd.log
4Operate and perform basic configuration of sendmailCandidate should be able to modify simple parameters in sendmail configuration files (including the "Smart Host" parameter, if necessary), create mail aliases, manage the mail queue, start and stop sendmail, configure mail forwarding and perform basic troubleshooting of sendmail. The objective includes checking for and closing open relay on the mailserver. It does not include advanced custom configuration of Sendmail. Key files, terms, and utilities include:/etc/aliases or /etc/mail/aliases /etc/mail/* ~/.forward mailq sendmail newaliases
4Operate and perform basic configuration of ApacheCandidates should be able to modify simple parameters in Apache configuration files, start, stop, and restart httpd, arrange for automatic restarting of httpd upon boot. Does not include advanced custom configuration of Apache.httpd.conf apachectl httpd
4Properly manage the NFS, smb, and nmb daemonsCandidate sh P*pT w to 'nt remote filesystems using NFS, configure NFS for exporting local filesystems, start, stop, and restart the NFS server. Install and configure Samba using the included GUI tools or direct edit of the /etc/smb.conf file (Note: this deliberately excludes advanced NT domain issues but includes simple sharing of home directories and printers, as well as correctly setting the nmbd as a WINS client)./etc/exports /etc/fstab /etc/smb.conf mount umount
4Set up secure shell (OpenSSH)The candidate should be able to obtain and configure OpenSSH. This objective includes basic OpenSSH installation and troubleshooting, as well as configuring sshd to start at system boot../etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.deny /etc/nologin /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh_known_hosts /etc/sshrc sshd ssh-keygen
Topic 114: Security

Table 14. LPI Exam 102: Security

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
3Setup host securityCandidate should know how to set up a basic level of host security. Tasks include syslog configuration, shadowed passwords, set up of a mail alias for root's mail and turning of all network services not in use./etc/inetd.conf or /etc/inet.d/* /etc/nologin /etc/passwd /etc/shadow /etc/syslog.conf
4Perform security administration tasksCandidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies. This objective includes how to configure TCP wrappers, find files with SUID/SGID bit set, verify packages, set or change user passwords and password aging information, update binaries as recommended by CERT, BUGTRAQ, and/or distribution's security alerts. Includes basic knowledge of ipchains and iptables./proc/net/ip_fwchains /proc/net/ip_fwnames /proc/net/ip_masquerade find ipchains passwd socket iptables
1Setup user level securityCandidate should be able to configure user level security. Tasks include limits on user logins, processes, and memory usage. Key files, terms, and utilities include:quota usermod

Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC2)

Status: Available now; published November 29, 2001 Pre-Requisites: Completion of LPIC Level 1 Requirements: Passing Exams 201 and 202 # Overview of Tasks: To pass Level 2 someone should be able to

  • Administer a small to medium-sized site

  • Plan, implement, maintain, keep consistent, secure, and troubleshoot a small mixed (MS, Linux) network, including a:

    • 'AN server (samba)

    • Internet Gateway (firewall, proxy, mail, news)

    • InternetServer(webserver,FTPserver)

  • Supervise assistants

  • Advise management on automation and purchases

LPI Exam 201
Topic 201: Linux Kernel

Table 15. LPI Exam 201: The Linux Kernel

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
1Kernel ComponentsCandidates should be able to utilize kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, identifying stable and development kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.zImage bzImage
1Compiling a kernelCandidates should be able to properly compile a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, implementing updates and noting changes in a new kernel, creating a system initrd image, and installing new kernels./usr/src/linux/ /etc/lilo.conf make options (config, xconfig, menuconfig, oldconfig, mrproper zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install) mkinitrd (both Red Hat and Debian based) make
1Customizing a kernelCandidates should be able to customize a kernel for specific system requirements by patching, compiling, and editing configuration files as required. This objective includes being able to assess requirements for a kernel compile versus a kernel patch as well as build and configure kernel modules./usr/src/linux /proc/sys/kernel/ /etc/conf.modules, /etc/modules.conf patch make modprobe insmod, lsmod kerneld kmod
2Patching a kernelCandidates should be able to properly patch a kernel for various purposes including to implement kernel updates, to implement bug fixes, and to add support for new hardware. This objective also includes being able to properly remove kernel patches from existing production kernels.Makefile patch gzip bzip
Topic 202:

Table 16. LPI Exam 201: System Startup

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
2Customizing system startup an @&pT sses o>Candidates should be able to edit appropriate system startup scripts to customize standard system run levels and boot processes. This objective includes interacting with run levels and creating custom initrd images as needed./etc/init.d/ /etc/inittab /etc/rc.d/ mkinitrd (both Red Hat and Debian scripts)
3System recoveryCandidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init= kernel options.inittab LILO init mount fsck
Topic 203: Filesystem

Table 17. LPI Exam 201: Filesystem

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
3Operatingthe Linux filesystem Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types. Also included, is manipulating filesystems to adjust for disk space requirements or device additions./etc/fstab /etc/mtab /proc/mounts mount and umount sync swapon swapoff
3Creating and configuring filesystem optionsCandidates should be able to configure automount filesystems. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating non ext2 filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs./etc/auto.master /etc/auto.[dir] mkisofs dd mke2fs
4Maintaining a Linux filesystemCandidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating a standard ext2 filesystem.fsck (fsck.ext2) badblocks mke2fs dumpe2fs debuge2fs tune2fs
Topic 204: Hardware

Table 18. LPI Exam 201: Hardware

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
1Configuring PCMCIA devicesCandidates should be able to configure a Linux installation to include PCMCIA support. This objective includes configuring PCMCIA devices, such as ethernet adapters, to autodetect when inserted./etc/pcmcia/ *.opts cardctl cardmgr
2Configuring RAIDCandidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using mkraid tools and configuring RAID 0, 1, and 5./etc/raidtab m od
2Software and kernel configurationCandidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various hardware devices including UDMA66 drives and IDE CD burners. This objective includes using LVM (Logical Volume Manager) to manage hard disk drives and particitions as well as software tools to interact with hard disk settings./proc/interrupts hdparm tune2fs sysctl
3Adding new hardwareCandidates should be able to configure internal and external devices for a system including new hard disks, dumb terminal devices, serial UPS devices, multi-port serial cards, and LCD panels./proc/bus/usb XFree86 modprobe lsmod lsdev lspci setserial usbview
Topic 209: File and Service Sharing

Table 19. LPI Exam 201: File and Service Sharing

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
5Configuring a samba serverThe candidate should be able to set up a Samba server for various clients. This objective includes setting up a login script for Samba clients, and setting up an nmbd WINS server. Also included is to change the workgroup in which a server participates, define a shared directory in smb.conf, define a shared printer in smb.conf, use nmblookup to test WINS server functionality, and use the smbmount command to mount an SMB share on a Linux client.smbd, nmbd smbstatus, smbtestparm, smbpasswd, nmblookup smb.conf, lmhosts
3Configuring an NFS serverThe candidate should be able to create an exports file and specify filesystems to be exported. This objective includes editing exports file entries to restrict access to certain hosts, subnets or netgroups. Also included is to specify mount options in the exports file, configure user ID mapping, mount an NFS filesystem on a client, using mount options to specify soft or hard and background retries, signal handling, locking, and block size. The candidate should also be able to configure tcpwrappers to further secure NFS./etc/exports exportfs showmount nfsstat
Topic 211: System Maintenance

Table 20. LPI Exam 201: System Maintenance

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
1System loggingThe candidate should be able to configure syslogd to act as a central network log server. This objective 'pT als P*cludes configuring syslogd to send log output to a central log server, logging remote connections, and using grep and other text utils to automate log analysis.syslog.conf /etc/hosts sysklogd
1Packaging softwareThe candidate should be able to build a package. This objective includes building (or rebuilding) both RPM and DEB packaged software./debian/rules SPEC file format rpm
2Backup operationsThe candidate should be able to create an offsite backup storage plan.Not applicable
Topic 213: System Customization and Automation

Table 21. LPI Exam 201: System Customization and Automation

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
3Automating tasks using scriptsThe candidate should be able to write simple Perl scripts that make use of modules where appropriate, use the Perl taint mode to secure data, and install Perl modules from CPAN. This objective includes using sed and awk in scripts, and using scripts to check for process execution and generate alerts by email or pager if a process dies. Candidates should be able to write and schedule automatic execution of scripts to parse logs for alerts and email them to administrators, synchronize files across machines using rsync, monitor files for changes and generate email alerts, and write a script that notifies administrators when specified users log in or out.perl -MCPAN -e shell bash, awk, sed crontab at
Topic 214: Troubleshooting

Table 22. LPI Exam 201: Troubleshooting

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
1Creating recovery disksCandidate should be able to: create both a standard bootdisk for system entrance, and a recovery disk for system repair./etc/fstab /etc/inittab Any standard editor Familiarity with the location and contents of the LDP Bootdisk-HOWTO /usr/sbin/rdev /bin/cat /bin/mount (includes -o loop switch) /sbin/lilo /bin/dd /sbin/mke2fs /usr/sbin/chroot
1Identifying boot stagesCandidate should be able to: determine, from bootup text, the 4 stages of boot sequence and distinguish between each.boot loader start and hand off to kernel kernel loading hardware initializiation and setup daemon initialization and setup
1Tro P*shooting LILOCandidate should be able to: determine specific stage failures and corrective techniques./boot/boot.b Know meaning of L, LI, LIL, LILO, and scrolling 010101 errrors Know the different LILO install locations, MBR, /dev/fd0, or primary/extended partition. Know significance of /boot/boot.### files
1General troubleshootingA candidate should be able to recognize and identify boot loader and kernel specific stages and utilize kernel boot messages to diagnose kernel errors. This objective includes being able to identify and correct common hardware issues, and be able to determine if the problem is hardware or software./proc filesystem Various system and daemon log files in /var/log/ /, /boot, and /lib/modules screen output during bootup kernel syslog entries in system logs (if entry is able to be gained) location of system kernel and attending modules dmesg /sbin/lspci /usr/bin/lsdev /sbin/lsmod /sbin/modprobe /sbin/insmod /bin/uname strace strings ltrace lsof
1Troubleshooting system resourcesA candidate should be able to identify, diagnose and repair local system environment./etc/profile && /etc/profile.d/ /etc/init.d/ /etc/rc.* /etc/sysctl.conf /etc/bashrc /etc/ld.so.conf (or other appropriate global shell configuration files) Core system variables Any standard editor /bin/ln /bin/rm /sbin/ldconfig /sbin/sysctl
1Troubleshooting environment configurationsA candidate should be able to identify common local system and user environment configuration issues and common repair techniques./etc/inittab /etc/rc.local /etc/rc.boot /var/spool/cron/crontabs/ /etc/`shell_name`.conf /etc/login.defs /etc/syslog.conf /etc/passwd /etc/shadow /etc/group /etc/profile /sbin/init /usr/sbin/cron /usr/bin/crontab
Exam 202
Topic XXX: Networking

Table 23. Exam 202: Networking

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
5Basic networking configurationModified: 2001-August-24 Maintainer: Kara Pritchard Weight: 5 Description: The candidate should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local network and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network, configure dialup access using mgetty, configure dialup access using a modem or ISDN, configure authentication protocols such as PAP and CHAP, and configure TCP/IP logging./sbin/route /sbin/ifconfig /sbin/arp &pT n/ar @&ch /etc/
3Advanced Network Configuration and TroubleshootingThe candidate should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device, configuring a virtual private network and resolving networking and communication problems./sbin/route /sbin/route /sbin/ifconfig /bin/netstat /bin/ping /sbin/arp /usr/sbin/tcpdump /usr/sbin/lsof /usr/bin/nc
Topic 206: Mail & News

Table 24. Exam 202: Mail & news

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
1Serving newsCandidates should be able to install and configure news servers using inn. This objective includes customizing and monitoring served newsgroups.innd
1Configuring mailing listsInstall and maintain mailing lists using majordomo. Monitor majordomo problems by viewing majordomo logs.Majordomo2
3Managing Mail TrafficCandidates shold be able to implement client mail management software to filter, sort, and monitor incoming user mail. This objective includes using software such as procmail on both server and client side.procmail .procmailrc
Using Sendmail4Candidates should be able to manage a Sendmail configuration including email aliases, mail quotas, and virtual mail domains. This objective includes configuring internal mail relays and monitoring SMTP servers./etc/aliases sendmail.cw virtusertable genericstable
Topic 207 DNS

Table 25. Exam 202: DNS

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
2Basic BIND 8 configurationThe candidate should be able to configure BIND to function as a caching-only DNS server. This objective includes the ability to convert a BIND 4.9 named.boot file to the BIND 8.x named.conf format, and reload the DNS by using kill or ndc. This objective also includes configuring logging and options such as directoryh location for zone files./etc/named.conf /usr/sbin/ndc /usr/sbin/named-bootconf kill
3Create and maintain DNS zonesThe candidate should be able to create a zone file for a forward or reverse zone or root level server. This objective includes setting appropriate values f @&he SOA resource record, NS records, and MX records. Also included is adding hosts with A resource records and CNAME records as appropriate, adding hosts to reverse zones with PTR records, and adding the zone to the /etc/named.conf file using the zone statement with appropriate type, file and masters values. A candidate should also be able to delegate a zone to another DNS server.contents of /var/named zone file syntax resource record formats dig nslookup host
3Securing a DNS serverThe candidate should be able to configure BIND to run as a non-root user, and configure BIND to run in a chroot jail. This objective includes configuring DNSSEC statements such as key and trusted-keys to prevent domain spoofing. Also included is the ability to configure a split DNS configuration using the forwarders statement, and specifying a non-standard version number string in response to queries.SysV init files or rc.local /etc/named.conf /etc/passwd dnskeygen
Topic 208 Web Services

Table 26. Exam 202: Web Services

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
2Implementing a web serverCandidates should be able to install and configure an Apache web server. This objective includes monitoring Apache load and performance, restricting client user access, configuring mod_perl and PHP support, and setting up client user authentication. Also included is configuring Apache server options such as maximum requests, minimum and maximim servers, and clients.access.log .htaccess httpd.conf mod_auth htpasswd htgroup
2Maintaining a web serverCandidates should be able to configure Apache to use virtual hosts for websites without dedicated IP addresses. This objective also includes creating an SSL certification for Apache and defining SSL definitions in configuration files using OpenSSL. Also included is customizing file access by implementing redirect statements in Apache's configuration files.httpd.conf
2Implementing a proxy serverCandidates should be able to install and configure a proxy server using Squid. This objective includes impelementing access policies, setting up authentication, and utilizing memory usage.squid.conf acl http_access
Topic 210 Network Client Management

Table 27. Exam 202: Network Client Management

Candidates should be able to edit appropriate system startup scripts to customize standard system run levels and boot processes. This objective includes interacting with run levels and creating custom initrd images as needed./etc/init.d/ /etc/inittab /etc/rc.d/ mkinitrd (both Red Hat and Debian scripts)
3System recoveryCandidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init= kernel options.inittab LILO init mount fsck
Topic 203: Filesystem

Table 17. LPI Exam 201: Filesystem

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
3Operatingthe Linux filesystem Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types. Also included, is manipulating filesystems to adjust for disk space requirements or device additions./etc/fstab /etc/mtab /proc/mounts mount and umount sync swapon swapoff
3Creating and configuring filesystem optionsCandidates should be able to configure automount filesystems. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating non ext2 filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs./etc/auto.master /etc/auto.[dir] mkisofs dd mke2fs
4Maintaining a Linux filesystemCandidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating a standard ext2 filesystem.fsck (fsck.ext2) badblocks mke2fs dumpe2fs debuge2fs tune2fs
Topic 204: Hardware

Table 18. LPI Exam 201: Hardware

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
1Configuring PCMCIA devicesCandidates should be able to configure a Linux installation to include PCMCIA support. This objective includes configuring PCMCIA devices, such as ethernet adapters, to autodetect when inserted./etc/pcmcia/ *.opts cardctl cardmgr
2Configuring RAIDCandidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using mkraid tools and configuring RAID 0, 1, and 5./etc/raidtab m od
2Software and kernel configurationCandidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various hardware devices including UDMA66 drives and IDE CD burners. This objective includes using LVM (Logical Volume Manager) to manage hard disk drives and particitions as well as software tools to interact with hard disk settings./proc/interrupts hdparm tune2fs sysctl
3Adding new hardwareCandidates should be able to configure internal and external devices for a system including new hard disks, dumb terminal devices, serial UPS devices, multi-port serial cards, and LCD panels./proc/bus/usb XFree86 modprobe lsmod lsdev lspci setserial usbview
Topic 209: File and Service Sharing

Table 19. LPI Exam 201: File and Service Sharing

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
5Configuring a samba serverThe candidate should be able to set up a Samba server for various clients. This objective includes setting up a login script for Samba clients, and setting up an nmbd WINS server. Also included is to change the workgroup in which a server participates, define a shared directory in smb.conf, define a shared printer in smb.conf, use nmblookup to test WINS server functionality, and use the smbmount command to mount an SMB share on a Linux client.smbd, nmbd smbstatus, smbtestparm, smbpasswd, nmblookup smb.conf, lmhosts
3Configuring an NFS serverThe candidate should be able to create an exports file and specify filesystems to be exported. This objective includes editing exports file entries to restrict access to certain hosts, subnets or netgroups. Also included is to specify mount options in the exports file, configure user ID mapping, mount an NFS filesystem on a client, using mount options to specify soft or hard and background retries, signal handling, locking, and block size. The candidate should also be able to configure tcpwrappers to further secure NFS./etc/exports exportfs showmount nfsstat
Topic 211: System Maintenance

Table 20. LPI Exam 201: System Maintenance

WeightTitleDescriptionKey Files, terms and utillities
1System loggingThe candidate should be able to configure syslogd to act as a central network log server. This objective lures arising from bootloader, module, and filesystem errors

  • diagnose and correct problems with network services (see Installation and Configuration below for a list of these services)

  • add, remove, and resize logical volumes

  • Skills needed for Installation and Configuration Exam:

    • perform network OS installation

    • implement a custom partitioning scheme

    • configure printing

    • configure the scheduling of tasks using cron and at

    • attach system to a network directory service, such as NIS or LDAP

    • configure autofs

    • add and manage users, groups, and quotas

    • configure filesystem permissions for collaboration

    • install and update RPMs

    • properly update the kernel RPM

    • modify the system bootloader

    • implement software RAID at install-time and run-time

    • use /proc/sys and sysctl to modify and set kernel run-time parameters

    People wanting to attain the RHCE certification must be also capable of configuring the following network services:

    • HTTP/HTTPS

    • SMB

    • NFS

    • FTP

    • Web proxy

    • SMTP

    • IMAP, IMAPS, and POP3

    • SSH

    • DNS

    For each of these services, RHCEs must be able to:

    • install the packages needed to provide the service

    • configure the service to start when the system is booted

    • configure the service for basic operation

    • Configure host-based and user-based security for the service

    RHCEs must also be able to

    • configure hands-free installation using Kickstart

    • implement logical volumes at install-time

    • use PAM to implement user-level restrictions