อภิธานศัพท์ฟิสิกส์ (อวกาศ)


อภิธานศัพท์ฟิสิกส์ (อวกาศ)
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P

PROMINENCE

A term identifying cloud-like features in the solar atmosphere. The features appear as bright structures in the CORONA above the solar LIMB and as dark FILAMENTs when seen projected against the solar DISK.

PROTON

Solar activity levels with at least on high energy event (Class X Flares)

PROTON EVENT

By definition, the measurement of at least 10 protons/sq.cm/sec/steradian at energies greater than 10 MeV.

PROTON FLARE

Any FLARE producing significant FLUXes of greater-than-10 MeV protons in the vicinity of the earth.

Q

QUIESCENT PROMINENCE (FILAMENT)

Long, sheet-like prominences nearly vertical to the solar surface.

QUIET

A descriptive word specifically meaning geomagnetic levels such that Ap LT 8 (see Ap INDEX).

QUIET

Solar activity levels with less than one chromospheric event per day

R

RADIO EMISSION

Emissions of the sun in radio wavelengths from centimeters to dekameters, under both quiet and disturbed conditions. Type I. A noise storm composed of many short, narrow-band bursts in the metric range (300 - 50 MHz). Type II. Narrow-band emission that begins in the meter range (300 MHz) and sweeps slowly (tens of minutes) toward deka- meter wavelengths (10 MHz). Type II emissions occur in loose association with major FLAREs and are indicative of a shock wave moving through the solar atmosphere. Type III. Narrow-band bursts that sweep rapidly (seconds) from decimeter to dekameter wavelengths (500 - 0.5 MHz). They often occur in groups and are an occasional feature of complex solar ACTIVE REGIONs. Type IV. A smooth continuum of broad-band bursts primarily in the meter range (300 - 30 MHz). These bursts are associated with some major flare events beginning 10 to 20 minutes after the flare maximum, and can last for hours.

RADIO EVENT

Flares with Centimetric Bursts and/or definite Ionospheric Event (SID).

RECURRENCE

Used especially in reference to the recurrence of physical parameters every 27 days (the rotation period of the sun).

RIOMETER (Relative Ionospheric Opacity meter)

A specially designed radio receiver for continuous monitoring of cosmic noise. The absorption of cosmic noise in the polar regions is very sensitive to the solar low-energy cosmic ray flux.

S

SECTOR BOUNDARY

In the SOLAR WIND, the area of demarcation between sec- tors, which are large-scale features distinguished by the predominant direction of the interplanetary magnetic field, toward or away from the sun.

SHORT WAVE FADE (SWF)

A particular ionospheric solar flare effect under the broad category of sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) whereby short-wavelength radio transmissions, VLF, through HF, are absorbed for a period of minutes to hours.

SMOOTHED SUNSPOT NUMBER

An average of 13 monthly RI numbers, centered on the month of concern.

SOLAR COORDINATES

Central Meridian Distance (CMD). The angular distance in solar longitude measured from the central meridian.


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