อภิธานศัพท์ฟิสิกส์ (อวกาศ)


อภิธานศัพท์ฟิสิกส์ (อวกาศ)
เลือกดูโดยใช้ดัชนีคำศัพท์

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M

MeV

Mega (million) electronvolt. A unit of energy used to describe the total energy carried by a particle or photon.

MICROWAVE BURST

A radiowave signal associated with optical and/or X-ray FLAREs.

MIDDLE LATITUDES

With specific reference to zones of geomagnetic activity, "middle latitudes" refers to 20 deg. to 50 deg. geomagnetic.

MOUNT WILSON MAGNETIC CLASSIFICATIONS

Alpha. Denotes a unipolar SUNSPOT group. Beta. A sunspot group having both positive and negative mag- netic polarities, with a simple and distinct division between the polarities. Beta-Gamma. A sunspot group that is bipolar but in which no continuous line can be drawn separating spots of opposite polarities. Delta. A complex magnetic configuration of a solar sunspot group consisting of opposite polarity UMBRAe within the same PENUMBRA. Gamma. A complex ACTIVE REGION in which the positive and nega- tive polarities are so irregularly distributed as to prevent classification as a bipolar group.

N

NANOTESLA (nT)

A unit of magnetism 10.0E-09 tesla, equivalent to a gamma (10.0E-05 gauss).

NEUTRAL LINE

The line that separates longitudinal magnetic fields of oppo- site polarity.

P

PENUMBRA

The SUNSPOT area that may surround the darker UMBRA or umbrae. It consists of linear bright and dark elements radial from the sunspot umbra.

PERSISTENCE

Continuation of existing conditions. When a physical parameter varies slowly, the best prediction is often persistence.

PHOTOSPHERE

The lowest layer of the solar atmosphere; corresponds to the solar surface viewed in WHITE LIGHT. SUNSPOTs and FACULAe are observed in the photosphere.

PLAGE

An extended emission feature of an ACTIVE REGION that exists from the emergence of the first magnetic flux until the widely scattered remnant magnetic fields merge with the background.

PLAGE CORRIDOR

A space in chromospheric (see CHROMOSPHERE) PLAGE lacking plage intensity, coinciding with polarity inversion line.

PLAGENIL

Spotless disc free of calcium plage

PLASMA

Any ionized gas, that is, any gas containing ions and electrons.

POLAR CAP ABSORPTION (PCA)

An anomalous condition of the polar IONOSPHERE whereby HF and VHF (3 - 300 MHz) radiowaves are absorbed, and LF and VLF (3 - 300 kHz) radiowaves are reflected at lower altitudes than normal. In practice, the absorption is inferred from the proton flux at energies greater than 10 MeV, so that PCAs and PROTON EVENTs are simultaneous. Transpolar radio paths may still be disturbed for days, up to weeks, following the end of a proton event.

POST-FLARE LOOPS

A LOOP PROMINENCE SYSTEM often seen after a major TWO-RIBBON FLARE, which bridges the ribbons.


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