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balance of power
A political policy in which countries attempt to preserve peace by keeping an equal military and economic status.
A promise made by British Prime Minister Balfour to create a homeland for the Jewish people.
A business that exchanges currencies, makes loans, and keeps the money of individual depositors.
Baron de Montesquieu
(1689-1755) Enlightenment thinker from France who wrote a book called, The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. In his book, Montesquieu describes what he considers to be the best government. He states that government should divide itself according to its powers, creating a Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branch. Montesquieu explained that under this system each branch would Check and Balance the others, which would help protect the people's liberty.
The exchange of goods or services for other goods or services.
Battle of Britain
The massive air war against Great Britain by the Nazi war machine in Germany. Nearly nightly bombings occurred between summer of 1940 and summer of 1941 before German withdrew. Great Britain fought alone during this year and never gave up.
A body of water partly surrounded by land but having a wide outlet to the sea.
Date designation meaning Before Common Era, or more than two thousand years ago.
Belief in a reverence for a supernatural power or powers reguarded as creator and governor of the universe.
Bell, Alexander Graham
(1847-1922) American inventor of the telephone.
(1886-1973) First Prime Minister of Israel.
A re-supply operation to the city of Berlin that lasted 11 months during 1948-49 when the Soviet Union attempted to close off the city.
(1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans. This began the process of imperializing Africa.
A wall built in 1961 dividing Soviet controlled East Berlin from the democratic West Berlin. It was destroyed when communism ended in 1990.
Bessemer, Sir Henry
(1813-98) Inventor who developed a more cost efficient process for making steel.
A Hindu holy book where the god Krishna teaches the importance of selflessness, performing religious duties, and of devotion to God.
bill of exchange
A document purchased from a bank that allowed a person to travel without having to carry large amounts of money. Worked like a modern check.
German word meaning lightning war. It was a German army tactic during World War II which called for quick moving, hard hitting drives into enemy territory.
A system of printing where characters are carved onto a wooden block. The block is then inked and pressed onto a sheet of paper.
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Afrikaners.
Early name of communists during the Russian Revolution of 1917.
(1783-1830) Latin American revolutionary responsible for the ousting of Spain from much of South America during the 19th century. He is considered to be the most important figure in the fight for Latin American independence.
The study of plant life.
Term given to the middle class people in society.
(1900) A rebellion by the people of China to end foreign domination.
In Hinduism, Brahman is the name given to the oneness of the universe.
(1906-1982) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982. During his control of the Soviet Union, relations with the West, as well as the Soviet economy, experienced a long period of stagnation.
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
An infectious disease transmitted by fleas. It is characterized by fever, chills, and the formation of swellings. Also known as the Black Plague or Black Death.
Buddhism developed in India, and is based on many of the core concepts of Hinduism.. Buddhists believe in an endless cycle of reincarnation, or samsara, which is similar to beliefs of Hinduism. However, Buddhists do not believe that deities are responsible for the phenomenon. In addition, the Caste System is rejected by Buddhists who believe instead that one is reincarnated until they can achieve nirvana, best described as spiritual enlightenment.
The administration portion of the government.