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Document written by Martin Luther detailing what he believed to be the problems in the medieval Church.
Luther's action was in great part a response to the selling of indulgences by Johann Tetzel, a Dominican priest, commissioned by the Archbishop of Mainz and Pope Leo X. The purpose of this fundraising campaign was to finance the building of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Even though Luther's prince, Frederick the Wise, and the prince of the neighboring territory, Duke George of Saxony, forbade the sale in their lands, Luther's parishioners traveled to purchase them. When these people came to confession, they presented the indulgence, claiming they no longer had to repent of their sins, since the document forgave all their sins.
Traditionally, Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517.
The first patriarch in the Bible. Abraham was asked by God to sacrifice his son, Isaac, and was rewarded for being prepared to do so. He is considered by Jewish people as the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac, and by Muslims as the father of Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch, who has absolute control.
Rain that contains pollutants due to the burning of fossil fuels. It is damaging to the environment.
Chinese method of treating disorders by inserting needles into the skin. This is to help with the flow of energy that is thought to be blocked.
A change made to survive an environment or to overcome a disadvantage.
African Trading Kingdoms
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Boers.
Age of Exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
Age of Reason
Term given to describe the Enlightenment.
Age of Transition
Term given to describe the Renaissance.
A change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food. This revolution was fueled by the use of new farming technology such as the seed drill and improved fertilizers. The result of this revolution was a population explosion due to the higher availability of food. It was one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
The cultivating of land, producing of crops, and raising of livestock for human consumption.
In Hinduism, it is the principal of non violence against all living things.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. A disease of the human immune system caused by the HIV retrovirus.
Akbar the Great
Islamic mathematician who pioneered the study of algebra. His textbook on the subject became a standard in European universities for centuries.
Islamic terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden. They are responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, including the destruction of the World Trade Center buildings in New York City.
(1918-1981) President of Egypt between 1970 and 1981. He was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists for making peace with Israel.