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The first patriarch in the Bible. Abraham was asked by God to sacrifice his son, Isaac, and was rewarded for being prepared to do so. He is considered by Jewish people as the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac, and by Muslims as the father of Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch, who has absolute control.
Rain that contains pollutants due to the burning of fossil fuels. It is damaging to the environment.
Chinese method of treating disorders by inserting needles into the skin. This is to help with the flow of energy that is thought to be blocked.
A change made to survive an environment or to overcome a disadvantage.
African Trading Kingdoms
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Boers.
Age of Exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
Age of Reason
Term given to describe the Enlightenment.
Age of Transition
Term given to describe the Renaissance.
A change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food. This revolution was fueled by the use of new farming technology such as the seed drill and improved fertilizers. The result of this revolution was a population explosion due to the higher availability of food. It was one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
The cultivating of land, producing of crops, and raising of livestock for human consumption.
In Hinduism, it is the principal of non violence against all living things.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. A disease of the human immune system caused by the HIV retrovirus.
Akbar the Great
Islamic mathematician who pioneered the study of algebra. His textbook on the subject became a standard in European universities for centuries.
Islamic terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden. They are responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, including the destruction of the World Trade Center buildings in New York City.
(1918-1981) President of Egypt between 1970 and 1981. He was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists for making peace with Israel.
Alexander the Great
A branch of mathematics pioneered by Islamic mathematician al-Khwarizimi in which letters are used to represent unknown numbers to generalize arithmetic.
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
Political revolution in the British North American Colonies starting in 1776 that removed the colonies from Great Britain
(1925?- ) President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. His brutal regime resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of people, as well as the near total ruin of Uganda. He was overthrown and exiled to Saudi Arabia in 1979.
April 3rd of 1919. British soldiers killed close to 400 unarmed Indian men, women, and children, and wounded 1,100 more. People had gathered in the center of town to protest British occupation of their country, and to demand equality. This was a turning point in British domination of India. Independence movements became very popular and eventually forced India's independence.
The branch of science that studies the physical structure of living organisms.
Worship given to deceased relatives who are believed to be closer to the Gods, and therefore able to grant favors.
The oldest known type of belief system in the world. It is still practiced in a variety of forms in many traditional societies. Animists practice nature worship. They believe that everything in the universe has a spirit. This is exemplified by the practices of the Plains Indians in North America who would praise the spirit of the buffalo that they killed for giving its life to them so that they might survive. Animists also believed that ancestors watch over the living from the spirit world. This belief resulted in ancestor worship as a means of communicating with and showing respect to ancestors.
The science that studies mankind, especially it's origin, development, divisions, and customs.
The hatred of people of Jewish descent.
A substance that kills bacteria in the human body. It is used to prevent or treat various illnesses.
An agent that helps prevent or reduce infection in wounds.
A political policy in South Africa where black South Africans could only live in certain areas, were required to use separate trains, beaches, restaurants, and schools, and could not enter into an interracial marriage.
The policy of pacifying an aggressive nation in the hopes of avoiding further conflict.
Above ground structures used to carry water long distances. Built by the ancient Romans.
A language that is the official language of several countries of North Africa and the Middle East, as well as the religion of Islam.
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.
Land that is able to support the growing of crops.
A curved structure that shapes the edge of an open space, such as, a doorway, a window.
Studies the lives of early peoples by analyzing the objects left behind by ancient civilizations.
(287-212 BCE) Greek mathematician and inventor. He wrote works on plane and solid geometry, arithmetic, and mechanics. He is best known for the lever and pulley.
A chain of islands (e.g., Hawaii, Indonesia, Japan).
A person who designs buildings.
(310?-250? BCE) Greek scientist who first stated that the Earth revolved around the Sun, and rotated on its axis.
A truce during wartime.
A marriage where the marital partners are choosen by others based on considerations other than pre-existing mutual attractions of the partners.
A person who is skilled at a craft, such as weaving, or woodcarving.
The killing of a political leader or other public figure.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Multinational organization that cooperates economically by lowering trade barriers, such as, tariffs, to encourage commerce between member nations.
A device used to determine latitude by observing the altitude and position of the sun or other start or planet.
A person who specializes in the study of astronomical bodies.
Aswan High Dam
Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal
(1881-1938) Nationalist leader of Turkey who is responsible for modernizing and westernizing his country after World War I. This enabled Turkey to resist imperialist attempts at takeover by various European powers.
In Hinduism, the human soul.
Also known as Austria-Hungary, or the Hapsburg Empire, as it was ruled by the Habsburg monarchy from 1867 to 1918. Austria-Hungary extended over most of central Europe. It was composed the modern day countries of Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, as well as parts of present-day Poland, Romania, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
(1900?-1989) Islamic religious leader who led a fundamentalist revolution in Iran in 1979. Ruled until 1989.
A Mesoamerican civilization of Mexico who created a strong empire that flourished between the 14th and 15th century. The arrival of Hernando Cortez and the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire.