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Also known as Austria-Hungary, or the Hapsburg Empire, as it was ruled by the Habsburg monarchy from 1867 to 1918. Austria-Hungary extended over most of central Europe. It was composed the modern day countries of Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, as well as parts of present-day Poland, Romania, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
(1900?-1989) Islamic religious leader who led a fundamentalist revolution in Iran in 1979. Ruled until 1989.
A Mesoamerican civilization of Mexico who created a strong empire that flourished between the 14th and 15th century. The arrival of Hernando Cortez and the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire.
balance of power
A political policy in which countries attempt to preserve peace by keeping an equal military and economic status.
A promise made by British Prime Minister Balfour to create a homeland for the Jewish people.
A business that exchanges currencies, makes loans, and keeps the money of individual depositors.
Baron de Montesquieu
(1689-1755) Enlightenment thinker from France who wrote a book called, The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. In his book, Montesquieu describes what he considers to be the best government. He states that government should divide itself according to its powers, creating a Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branch. Montesquieu explained that under this system each branch would Check and Balance the others, which would help protect the people's liberty.
The exchange of goods or services for other goods or services.
Battle of Britain
The massive air war against Great Britain by the Nazi war machine in Germany. Nearly nightly bombings occurred between summer of 1940 and summer of 1941 before German withdrew. Great Britain fought alone during this year and never gave up.
A body of water partly surrounded by land but having a wide outlet to the sea.
Date designation meaning Before Common Era, or more than two thousand years ago.
Belief in a reverence for a supernatural power or powers reguarded as creator and governor of the universe.
Bell, Alexander Graham
(1847-1922) American inventor of the telephone.
(1886-1973) First Prime Minister of Israel.
A re-supply operation to the city of Berlin that lasted 11 months during 1948-49 when the Soviet Union attempted to close off the city.
(1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans. This began the process of imperializing Africa.
A wall built in 1961 dividing Soviet controlled East Berlin from the democratic West Berlin. It was destroyed when communism ended in 1990.