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Dr. Prin Singhanart

95 Theses

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Document written by Martin Luther detailing what he believed to be the problems in the medieval Church.

Luther's action was in great part a response to the selling of indulgences by Johann Tetzel, a Dominican priest, commissioned by the Archbishop of Mainz and Pope Leo X. The purpose of this fundraising campaign was to finance the building of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Even though Luther's prince, Frederick the Wise, and the prince of the neighboring territory, Duke George of Saxony, forbade the sale in their lands, Luther's parishioners traveled to purchase them. When these people came to confession, they presented the indulgence, claiming they no longer had to repent of their sins, since the document forgave all their sins.

Traditionally, Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 31, 1517.
 

Abbassid Dynasty

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(750 - 1258) Ruling family of the Islamic Empire during its golden age and responsible for many achievements.
 

Abraham

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The first patriarch in the Bible. Abraham was asked by God to sacrifice his son, Isaac, and was rewarded for being prepared to do so. He is considered by Jewish people as the father of the Israelites through his son Isaac, and by Muslims as the father of Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
 

absolute monarchy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch, who has absolute control.
 

acid rain

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Rain that contains pollutants due to the burning of fossil fuels. It is damaging to the environment.
 

acupuncture

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Chinese method of treating disorders by inserting needles into the skin. This is to help with the flow of energy that is thought to be blocked.
 

adaptation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A change made to survive an environment or to overcome a disadvantage.
 

African Trading Kingdoms

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Three African kingdoms, Ghana, Mali, and Songhai that were important in the trans-Sahara trade of gold form the west coast of Africa to North Africa and the Middle East. Their trade provided enough wealth to create the conditions necessary for cultural and intellectual achievement.
 

Afrikaners

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Boers.
 

Age of Exploration

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
 

Age of Reason

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Term given to describe the Enlightenment.
 

Age of Transition

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Term given to describe the Renaissance.
 

Agrarian Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food. This revolution was fueled by the use of new farming technology such as the seed drill and improved fertilizers. The result of this revolution was a population explosion due to the higher availability of food. It was one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
 

agriculture

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The cultivating of land, producing of crops, and raising of livestock for human consumption.
 

Ahimsa

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Hinduism, it is the principal of non violence against all living things.
 

AIDS

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. A disease of the human immune system caused by the HIV retrovirus.
 

Akbar the Great

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1542-1605) Emperor of the Mughal Empire in India. He is considered to be their greatest ruler. He is responsible for the expansion of his empire, the stability his administration gave to it, and the increasing of trade and cultural diffusion.
 

al-Khwarizimi

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Islamic mathematician who pioneered the study of algebra. His textbook on the subject became a standard in European universities for centuries.
 

Al-Qaeda

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Islamic terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden. They are responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, including the destruction of the World Trade Center buildings in New York City.
 

al-Sadat, Anwar

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1918-1981) President of Egypt between 1970 and 1981. He was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists for making peace with Israel.
 

Alexander the Great

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(356 BCE-323 BCE) He conquered most of the ancient world from Asia Minor to Egypt and India, which began the Hellenistic culture which was a blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences.
 

algebra

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A branch of mathematics pioneered by Islamic mathematician al-Khwarizimi in which letters are used to represent unknown numbers to generalize arithmetic.
 

Allied Powers

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
 

American Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Political revolution in the British North American Colonies starting in 1776 that removed the colonies from Great Britain
 

Amin, Idi

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1925?- ) President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. His brutal regime resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of people, as well as the near total ruin of Uganda. He was overthrown and exiled to Saudi Arabia in 1979.
 

Amritsar Massacre

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
April 3rd of 1919. British soldiers killed close to 400 unarmed Indian men, women, and children, and wounded 1,100 more. People had gathered in the center of town to protest British occupation of their country, and to demand equality. This was a turning point in British domination of India. Independence movements became very popular and eventually forced India's independence.
 

Analects, The

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Collection of moral and social teachings of Confucius, including the concept of the Five Relationships.
 

anatomy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The branch of science that studies the physical structure of living organisms.
 

ancestor worship

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Worship given to deceased relatives who are believed to be closer to the Gods, and therefore able to grant favors.
 

Animism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The oldest known type of belief system in the world. It is still practiced in a variety of forms in many traditional societies. Animists practice nature worship. They believe that everything in the universe has a spirit. This is exemplified by the practices of the Plains Indians in North America who would praise the spirit of the buffalo that they killed for giving its life to them so that they might survive. Animists also believed that ancestors watch over the living from the spirit world. This belief resulted in ancestor worship as a means of communicating with and showing respect to ancestors.
 

Anthropology

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 

The science that studies mankind, especially it's origin, development, divisions, and customs.

 

anti-Semitism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The hatred of people of Jewish descent.
 

antibiotics

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A substance that kills bacteria in the human body. It is used to prevent or treat various illnesses.
 

antiseptic

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An agent that helps prevent or reduce infection in wounds.
 

apartheid

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political policy in South Africa where black South Africans could only live in certain areas, were required to use separate trains, beaches, restaurants, and schools, and could not enter into an interracial marriage.
 

appeasement

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The policy of pacifying an aggressive nation in the hopes of avoiding further conflict.
 

aqueducts

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Above ground structures used to carry water long distances. Built by the ancient Romans.
 

Arabic

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A language that is the official language of several countries of North Africa and the Middle East, as well as the religion of Islam.
 

Arabic Numerals

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.
 

arable

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Land that is able to support the growing of crops.
 

Arafat , Yasir

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1929- ) President of the Palestine National Authority and Chairman of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Considered by many to be a terrorist, he has in recent years been accepted as the legitimate authority to speak for the Palestinians. His goals is to create a homeland for the displaced Palestinians.
 

arch

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A curved structure that shapes the edge of an open space, such as, a doorway, a window.
 

Archeology

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Studies the lives of early peoples by analyzing the objects left behind by ancient civilizations.
 

Archimedes

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(287-212 BCE) Greek mathematician and inventor. He wrote works on plane and solid geometry, arithmetic, and mechanics. He is best known for the lever and pulley.
 

Archipelago

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A chain of islands (e.g., Hawaii, Indonesia, Japan).
 

architect

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who designs buildings.
 

Aristarchus

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(310?-250? BCE) Greek scientist who first stated that the Earth revolved around the Sun, and rotated on its axis.
 

armistice

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A truce during wartime.
 

Arranged Marriage

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A marriage where the marital partners are choosen by others based on considerations other than pre-existing mutual attractions of the partners.
 

artisan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who is skilled at a craft, such as weaving, or woodcarving.
 

Aryans

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nomadic warriors from Central Asia who migrated into India around 1500 BCE. They are responsible for many aspects of current Indian culture including their language, sacred texts called the Vedas, and a system of government that later evolved into the caste system.
 

Asian Tigers

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and South Korea. These nations have experienced rapid economic growth and prosperity due to industrialization, and were aligned both politically, and economically with the West throughout the Cold War
 

Asoka

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(?-232 BCE) King of the Maurya dynasty. He ruled nearly the entire subcontinent of India. He also was instrumental in the spread of Buddhism after his conversion.
 

assassination

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The killing of a political leader or other public figure.
 

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Multinational organization that cooperates economically by lowering trade barriers, such as, tariffs, to encourage commerce between member nations.
 

astrolabe

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A device used to determine latitude by observing the altitude and position of the sun or other start or planet.
 

astronomer

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who specializes in the study of astronomical bodies.
 

Aswan High Dam

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Dam across the Nile River in Egypt. Created Lake Nassar and helps to create more farmland. Built between 1960 and 1970.
 

Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1881-1938) Nationalist leader of Turkey who is responsible for modernizing and westernizing his country after World War I. This enabled Turkey to resist imperialist attempts at takeover by various European powers.
 

Atman

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Hinduism, the human soul.
 

Augustus

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(63 BCE
 

Austro-Hungarian Empire

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Also known as Austria-Hungary, or the Hapsburg Empire, as it was ruled by the Habsburg monarchy from 1867 to 1918. Austria-Hungary extended over most of central Europe. It was composed the modern day countries of Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, as well as parts of present-day Poland, Romania, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
 

Axis Powers

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
 

Ayatollah Khomeini

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1900?-1989) Islamic religious leader who led a fundamentalist revolution in Iran in 1979. Ruled until 1989.
 

Aztecs

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A Mesoamerican civilization of Mexico who created a strong empire that flourished between the 14th and 15th century. The arrival of Hernando Cortez and the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire.
 

balance of power

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political policy in which countries attempt to preserve peace by keeping an equal military and economic status.
 

Balfour Declaration

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A promise made by British Prime Minister Balfour to create a homeland for the Jewish people.
 

bank

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A business that exchanges currencies, makes loans, and keeps the money of individual depositors.
 

Baron de Montesquieu

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1689-1755) Enlightenment thinker from France who wrote a book called, The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. In his book, Montesquieu describes what he considers to be the best government. He states that government should divide itself according to its powers, creating a Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branch. Montesquieu explained that under this system each branch would Check and Balance the others, which would help protect the people's liberty.
 

barter

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The exchange of goods or services for other goods or services.
 

Batista, Fulgencio

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1901-1973) Cuban president from 1940 to 1944 and 1952 to 1959. He was responsible for some reforms in the country before leaving office for the first time. Later, he overthrew the legitimate government and ruled as a dictator until he was forced from office by Fidel Castro.
 

Battle of Britain

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The massive air war against Great Britain by the Nazi war machine in Germany. Nearly nightly bombings occurred between summer of 1940 and summer of 1941 before German withdrew. Great Britain fought alone during this year and never gave up.
 

Bay

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A body of water partly surrounded by land but having a wide outlet to the sea.
 

BCE

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Date designation meaning Before Common Era, or more than two thousand years ago.
 

Belief System

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Belief in a reverence for a supernatural power or powers reguarded as creator and governor of the universe.
 

Bell, Alexander Graham

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1847-1922) American inventor of the telephone.
 

Ben-Gurion, David

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1886-1973) First Prime Minister of Israel.
 

Berlin Airlift

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A re-supply operation to the city of Berlin that lasted 11 months during 1948-49 when the Soviet Union attempted to close off the city.
 

Berlin Conference

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans. This began the process of imperializing Africa.
 

Berlin Wall

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A wall built in 1961 dividing Soviet controlled East Berlin from the democratic West Berlin. It was destroyed when communism ended in 1990.
 

Bessemer, Sir Henry

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1813-98) Inventor who developed a more cost efficient process for making steel.
 

Bhagavad Gita

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A Hindu holy book where the god Krishna teaches the importance of selflessness, performing religious duties, and of devotion to God.
 

bill of exchange

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A document purchased from a bank that allowed a person to travel without having to carry large amounts of money. Worked like a modern check.
 

Bl

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Blood and Iron policy of Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck to unify all of Germany under Prussian control and build and expand it into a great empire. Very successful.
 

Black Hand

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Serbian nationalist/terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the start of World War I.
 

blended family

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A stepfamily
 

blitzkrieg

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
German word meaning lightning war. It was a German army tactic during World War II which called for quick moving, hard hitting drives into enemy territory.
 

block printing

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system of printing where characters are carved onto a wooden block. The block is then inked and pressed onto a sheet of paper.
 

Boer War

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
 

Boers

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Afrikaners.
 

Bolshevik

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Early name of communists during the Russian Revolution of 1917.
 

Bolํvar, Sim๓n

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1783-1830) Latin American revolutionary responsible for the ousting of Spain from much of South America during the 19th century. He is considered to be the most important figure in the fight for Latin American independence.
 

Bonaparte, Napoleon

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.
 

botany

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The study of plant life.
 

bourgeoisie

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Term given to the middle class people in society.
 

Boxer Rebellion

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1900) A rebellion by the people of China to end foreign domination.
 

Brahma

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Hindu god called the Creator. Brahma is the first member of the triad that includes Vishnu the Preserver and Shiva the Destroyer.
 

Brahman

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Hinduism, Brahman is the name given to the oneness of the universe.
 

Brezhnev, Leonid

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1906-1982) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982. During his control of the Soviet Union, relations with the West, as well as the Soviet economy, experienced a long period of stagnation.
 

British East India Company

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
 

bubonic plague

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An infectious disease transmitted by fleas. It is characterized by fever, chills, and the formation of swellings. Also known as the Black Plague or Black Death.
 

Buddha

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Hindu for
 

Buddhism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Buddhism developed in India, and is based on many of the core concepts of Hinduism.. Buddhists believe in an endless cycle of reincarnation, or samsara, which is similar to beliefs of Hinduism. However, Buddhists do not believe that deities are responsible for the phenomenon. In addition, the Caste System is rejected by Buddhists who believe instead that one is reincarnated until they can achieve nirvana, best described as spiritual enlightenment.
 

bureaucracy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The administration portion of the government.
 

Bushido

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Code of conduct for Samurai and nobles during Japanese feudalism.
 

Byzantine Empire

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
 

Cabinet System

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Collection of people who run various departments in government. Usually report to the chief executive, such as the prime Minister, or the President.
 

Caesar, Julius

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(100-44 BCE), Roman general and statesman. He is responsible for setting up the imperial system in Rome which placed his grandnephew, Augustus, on the throne.
 

calendar

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system for keeping track of time.
 

Caliph

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Islam, the successor to the Prophet Mohammed.
 

calligraphy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A form of fine handwriting.
 

Calvin, John

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1509-1564) Theologian and church reformer who developed a form of Protestantism during the Reformation. His church is known for the idea of predestination, which states certain people are predestined for heaven.
 

cannon

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A weapon which uses an iron ball as a projectile and gunpowder as the blasting agent.
 

Canon on Medicine

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A book written by Ibn Sina, a famous Islamic physician, which was an encyclopedia of Greek, Arabic, and his own knowledge of medicine. This book became the standard medical text in Europe for over five hundred years.
 

Cape of Good Hope

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Southern tip of the African continent.
 

capital

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Money that is used for investment.
 

capitalism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods. Also promotes a free market regulated by supply and demand.
 

caravel

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A Portuguese ship that had a large cargo area and used two orthree masts.
 

Carbon-14 Dating

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A
 

Cardinal Richelieu

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1585-1642) French Cardinal and politician responsible for instituting absolutist practices in France.
 

cartography

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The skill of making maps.
 

Cash Crop Economy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An economic system based on the exportation of certain crops such as sugar, cotton, and coffee.
 

Cashed Crops

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A readily salable crop that is grown and gethered for the market.
 

Caste System

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
 

Castro, Fidel

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1926?- ) Leader of the Cuban Revolution and communist dictator of Cuba. He is responsible for making Cuba a socialist country which has often been at odds with the United States. Notably, the bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
 

Catherine the Great

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port.
 

causeway

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A paved road or path.
 

Cavalry

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Mounted warriors.
 

Cavour, Camillo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1810-61) Prime Minister of Sardinia, a large Italian State. He formed alliances with other foreign powers to help end Austria's and Spain's control. Instrumental in the unification of Italy.
 

CE

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Date designation meaning Common Era, or the last two thousand years of history.
 

censorship

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The suppression information considered offensive or a threat to security.
 

centralized government

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A government which controls all aspects of society from a central location or through a central system.
 

Chamberlain, Neville

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1869-1940) Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1937 to 1940. He is responsible for the policy of appeasement with Adolf Hitler
 

chancellor

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Prime Minister, or chief executive of a country or nation state.
 

check and balance

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system in government described by Baron de Montesquieu where legislative, judicial, and executive power is shared among the different branches to provide protection against abuses of power.
 

chemistry

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The science dealing with the structure, composition, properties, and reactive characteristics of substances.
 

Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Accident

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1986) This accident release large amounts of radiation that not only affected the immediate area, (Ukraine,) but also was carried on strong winds across many countries in Europe. The effects of this accident have to date been an increase in cancer victims, numerous birth defects, and the destruction of many acres of good land.
 

chinampas

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
floating islands of land anchored to a lake bottom used for agriculture. This technique was used by the Aztecs.
 

Chinese Communist Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political revolution in China led by Mao Zedong. After several years of fighting the Kuomintang, the communists won control of the country in 1949.
 

Chivalry

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Code of conduct for knight and nobles during European feudalism.
 

chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A gas containing carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine. It is used in refrigerators and aerosol sprays. CFCs are reputed to be damaging to the Earth
 

Christ, Jesus

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(8-4 BCE- 29? CE) Founder of Christianity. Considered by Christians to be the son of God and the Messiah. He is the central figure in the Christian Religion.
 

Christian

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Professing belief in Jesus as Christ or following the religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus.
 

Christianity

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Currently the most popular religion in the world based on the number of worshippers found throughout the world. While this monotheistic religion developed from Judaism, there are several key differences in its teachings. Christianity was founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century CE. The Christian holy book is called the Holy Bible.
 

Churchill, Sir Winston

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1874-1965) British politician and Prime Minster of Great Britain from 1940 to 1945, and 1951 to 1955. He is regarded as the finest British leader of the 20th century and was instrumental in leading Britain to victory during World War II.
 

circumference

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The distance around the edge of a circle.
 

circumnavigate

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
To travel around something, like an island or the world.
 

city-state

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding lands.
 

civil disobedience

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The purposeful breaking of laws to protest actions by the government.
 

civil service exam

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In China, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the bureaucracy.
 

civil war

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A war between groups of people in the same country, culture, or political system.
 

Civilization

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 

The type of culture and society developed by a particular nation or region.(e.g., The Maya or the

 

Clemenceau, Georges

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1841-1929) French Premier during World War I. He was one of the formulators of the Treaty of Versailles.
 

Climate

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The average weather conditions of a certain region.
 

Cold War

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Non shooting conflict between the Soviet Union and their allies and the United States and their allies. Numerous secondary conflicts arise due to the Cold War.
 

collective farm

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A government owned farms where peasants work on a quota system.
 

colonialism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The policy of maintaining colonies as a source of raw materials and new markets. Practiced during old and new imperialism.
 

colonization

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A group of people moving from their homeland to a new area in large numbers.
 

Columbian Exchange

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The exchange of goods and other things, such as disease from the Old World (Europe) to the new World (North and South America) and back.
 

Columbus, Christopher

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1451-1506) Italian explorer working for Spain who, in 1492, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the Americas for Spain.
 

Command Economy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An economic system controlled by strong, centralized government, which usually focuses on industrial goods. With little attention paid to agriculture and consumer goods.
 

commerce

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The large scale buying of goods and/or services.
 

Commercial Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A dramatic change in the economy of Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. It is characterized by an increase in towns and trade, the use of banks and credit, and the establishment of guilds to regulate quality and price.
 

Commonwealth of Independent States

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nation created after the breakup of the Soviet Union. It includes Russia and several smaller former Soviet republics.
 

commune

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A government owned farms where peasants work on a quota system.
 

communism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system of government in which a single, totalitarian, party holds power. It is characterized by state control of the economy, and restriction on personal freedoms. It was first proposed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The Communist Manifesto.
 

Communist Manifesto, The

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that describes the new political system of scientific socialism, which becomes the basis for communism. The book states that all of human history is based on the conflict between the bourgeoisie (those who own the means of production) and the proletariat (working class), and predicted that the proletariat would rise up in a violent revolution to overthrow the bourgeoisie and create a society with an equal distribution of goods and services.
 

Communist Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political revolution in Russia beginning in 1917. The Bolsheviks, now known as Communists, overthrew Czar Nicholas II and created a socialist government based upon the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Also know as the Bolshevik Revolution.
 

Computer Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
During the 1980s personal computers began to appear in many homes across the world. By the late 1990s, computers had become a staple in most industrialized country
 

concentration camp

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A prison camp used to hold Jews during World War II and the Holocaust.
 

Confucianism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Confucius lived in China during the Chou Dynasty, when there was mass disorder and confusion and degrading moral standards. Confucius was appalled by what appeared to be the fracturing of Chinese society. He believed that the only cure was to stress a sense of social order and mutual respect, a philosophy that later became known as Confucianism. Confucianism teaches that there is a natural social order to society which can best be explained through the Five Relationships.
 

Confucius

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(551-479 BCE?) Chinese philosopher and writer of The Analects, a collection of moral and social teachings, including the concept of the Five Relationships. Also known as Kong Fu Zi.
 

Congress of Vienna

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Meeting of European political leaders to reestablish former territorial borders after the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the fall of Napoleon. The Congress was held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815, and was dominated by Prince Metternich of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
 

conquistadors

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Spanish conquerors who came to the New World in search of gold and other riches.
 

Constantine

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(274 CE
 

constitution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A document detailing the fundamental laws of a country or organization.
 

constitutional monarchy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch who has limited power due to a constitution
 

containment

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A cold war policy that called for containing communism to areas already under its influence. This policy was proposed by U.S. President Harry Truman.
 

Copernicus, Nicolaus

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1473-1543) Polish astronomer who wrote On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. Theorized that the Earth orbited the Sun (heliocentric system) and laid the foundations of modern astronomy.
 

corporation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A company with business dealings in many different areas.
 

Cortez, Hernan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1485-1547) Spanish conquistador who was responsible for the conquest of the Aztec Empire and the claiming of much of Central America for the Spanish.
 

Counter-Reformation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The movement initiated by the Catholic Church to contain the Protestant Reformation and, if possible, end it.
 

coup d etat

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The acting of overthrowing a government in favor of another, usually through violent means.
 

craftsman

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who makes quality, practical or decorative goods.
 

cremation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The burning of a dead body until it turns to ash.
 

Creoles

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In colonial Latin America, American born Spanish gentry, They owned most of the land but were treated like second class citizens, and were denied political rights.
 

Cromwell, Oliver

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1599-1658) Leader of the English Revolution that deposed the Stuart monarchs in favor of a short lived Republic. Cromwell acted as Lord Protector until the restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
 

Crusades

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
European Christian military expeditions made between the 11th and 13th centuries to retake the Middle Eastern Holy Lands occupied by the Muslims.
 

Cuban Missile Crisis

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1961) Crises that developed as a result of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro
 

Cuban Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1958) A political revolution that removed the United States supported Fugencio Batista from power. The revolution was led by Fidel Castro who became the new leader of Cuba as a communist dictator.
 

Cultural Diffusion

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
When a culture spreads to an area around it and makes a noticable difference in other cultures. (e.g., Latin was spoken in the Roman Empire, and Latin became the basis of all modern romance languages).
 

Cultural Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1966-1976) Political policy in started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands.
 

culture

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The shared beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people
 

culture system

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system of slave labor used by the Dutch in their South East Asia colonies.
 

cuneiform

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
One of the earliest forms of writing. It consisted of wedge shaped symbols usually imprinted in clay. Used throughout ancient Mesopotamia.
 

Curie, Marie

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1867-1934) French scientist. She is best known for his work with her husband Pierre in the field of radioactivity.
 

Curie, Pierre

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1859-1906) French scientist. He is best known for his work with his wife Marie in the field of radioactivity.
 

Cyrillic

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An alphabet created by Eastern Orthodox monks for the Slavic language. It is based on Greek, and still used through the various Slavic countries today, such as Russia.
 

Czar

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Title of the ruler of Russia. Taken from the word Caesar, which means emperor.
 

Czar Nicholas II

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1868-1918) Czar of Russia (1894-1917). He was overthrown during the Russian Revolution of 1917. Later, he and his family were killed by the revolution
 

Da Gama, Vasco

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1469?-1524) Portuguese explorer who, in 1498, established an all water route to India
 

Da Vinci, Leonardo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1452-1519) An Italian painter, sculptor, engineer, and inventor. Famous works include paintings Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Also left a variety of sketches showing flying machines and underwater boats centuries before the invention of planes and submarines.
 

Daimler, Gottlieb

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1834-1900) German inventor. He is best know for his work in the development of the gasoline internal combustion engine.
 

daimyo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Land owning feudal lords in Japan.
 

Dalai Lama

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The spiritual leader of the Tibetan sect of Buddhism, and is considered to be the reincarnation of the bodhisattva, or "buddha-to-be."
 

dam

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A structure built to hold water in place.
 

Dante

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1265-1321) Italian poet and Renaissance writer. His greatest work is The Divine Comedy.
 

Darius I

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(558?BCE
 

de Cervantes, Miguel

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1547-1616) Spanish Renaissance writer. His greatest work is the comedic tale Don Quixote.
 

de Klerk, F. W.

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1936 - ) The white South African president who ended Apartheid in the early 1990s.
 

de San Martํn, Jos้

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1778-1850) Latin American revolutionary. He is one of the main leaders of the Latin American independence movement.
 

de Santa Anna, Antonio L๓pez

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1794-1876) Mexican general and dictator who controlled Mexico for more than 25 years. Lost war against the United States which cost Mexico present day California, Nevada, and New Mexico.
 

decimal system

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Numeric system based on ten. Created by mathematicians during the Gupta golden age in India.
 

Declaration of the Rights of Man

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Revolutionary document of the French Revolution. Written in 1789, it spelled out certain rights believed to be universal to all mankind. Patterned on the American Declaration of Independence.
 

deforestation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The widespread destruction of the world's forests. One of the largest areas of destruction are the tropical rainforests. These forest are cut down for the hardwood lumber, to clear space for farming, for building settlements, and for grazing animals.land bridge
 

Democracy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Government by people exercised either directly or through elected representstives.
 

democratic republic

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political system in which a country is ruled by law, has representative government, and is democratic in nature.
 

Deng Xiaoping

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1904-1997) Chinese Communist leader. Ruled from 1978 until 1997.
 

Descartes, Rene

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1596-1650) French intellectual who challenged traditional ideas. He said that human reason was capable of discovering and explaining the laws of nature and man. The idea of human reason being superior to tradition led to the beginning of the Enlightenment, a time of political awakening that became revolution.
 

desertification

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The process in which land slowly dries out until little or no vegetation exists becoming a desert.
 

developing nations

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nations that are economically and technologically less developed than industrialized nations.
 

dharma

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The act of fulfilling one's duty in life. Associated with Hinduism and Buddhism.
 

Dias, Bartholomeu

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1450?-1500) Portuguese explorer who, in 1488, was the first person to round the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa.
 

diaspora

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The enforced spreading out of a group of people. In history, there has been both a Jewish Diaspora and an African Diaspora.
 

dictatorship

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
the office or
 

Diocletian

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(245-313) Emperor of Rome who was responsible for dividing Rome into different provinces and districts. Eventually, the eastern portions of the Empire became known as the Byzantine Empire.
 

discrimination

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
To treat unfairly due to a persons ethnic background, gender, religion, or age
 

divine

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Godlike, or coming from, or having to do with a god.
 

Divine Comedy, The

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An epic poem written by Dante during the Renaissance.
 

divine right

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The justification of monarchy through the word of God.
 

divorce

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The legal act of ending a marriage.
 

dome

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A hemispherical roof.
 

Dome of the Rock

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
First Islamic religious shrine. It was built in 687 C.E., and is located in present day Jerusalem, Israel.
 

domesticate

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
To tame an animal to live with, or close to humans.
 

domino theory

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The idea that countries bordering communist countries were in more danger of falling to communism unless the United States and other western nations worked to prevent it.
 

Don Quixote

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A comedic book written by Miguel de Cervantes during the Renaissance. The title character is now used to refer to idealists that champion hopeless or fanciful causes.
 

d้tente

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A policy during the Cold War which was aimed at relaxing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. The policy calls for increase diplomatic and commercial activity.
 

Duma

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Name of the Russia Parliament.
 

Dutch East Indies

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A group of islands in South East Asia claimed by the Dutch during Imperialism.
 

dyke

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A drainage ditch used to help control flooding.
 

dynastic cycle

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In China, a dynasty would remain in power only as long as it was providing good government. When a dynasty went into decline, and began to abuse its power, it was said to lose the Mandate of Heaven, or the favor of the gods. A strong leader would usually emerge to claim the Mandate, and establish a new dynasty. The dynastic cycle would then begin again.
 

dynasty

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A succession of rulers of a country from the same family.
 

Ebola

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A contagious viral disease originating in Africa. It is transmitted by blood and body fluids and causes body organs and vessels to leak blood, usually resulting in death.
 

economic rights

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Rights such as owning property, or the choice to be employed.
 

Economics

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 

Social science that deals with production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services and with the theory and management of economies or economic systems.

 

Edict of Milan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(313 CE) Proclamation by the Roman Emperor Constantine outlawing the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.
 

Edison, Thomas Alva

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1847-1931) American inventor. He is best know for the electric light bulb, the phonograph, and the motion picture camera.
 

Eightfold Path

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Code of behavior for followers of Buddhism.
 

Einstein, Albert

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1879-1955) American scientist best known for his theory of relativity.
 

Elizabeth I

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time.
 

emperor

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Political ruler of a country of nation. Similar to a king.
 

empire

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
1. A collection of nations or peoples ruled by a single authority, usually a monarch, but can be other systems of government as well. 2. A very large and powerful industrial organization
 

Enclosure Movement

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes.
 

encomienda system

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system of production in Spain
 

Engels, Friedrich

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1820-1895) German socialist and co-author of The Communist Manifesto.
 

engineer

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who plans and creates mechanic structures for a variety of uses.
 

English Bill of Rights

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1689) A Bill of Rights written after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 which placed William and Mary on the throne of England. The bill created a limited monarchy and established Parliament as the ruling body of the nation.
 

enlightened despots

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A monarch who retains absolute control of their country while also enacting reform based on Enlightenment ideas.
 

Enlightenment

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A movement in the 18th century that stressed the importance of reason and science in philosophy and the study of human society. Occurred in Western Europe.
 

environment

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Everything in nature including people, plants, and animals that affects development in life.
 

Eratosthenes

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(276?-196? BCE), Greek mathematician, astronomer, and geographer who measured the circumference of the Earth. His measurement was only off by 15%.
 

escalate

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
To increase.
 

Estates

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Class system in France before the French Revolution. There were three Estates, First Estate was Clergy, Second was Nobility, and Third was peasants, merchants, and townspeople.
 

Estates General

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The legislative body of France. Composed of representatives from the three estates which are Clergy in the First Estate, Nobles in the Second Estate, and peasants in the Third Estate. Each Estate is entitled to one vote on legislative matters. The Estates General was never as strong as the British Parliament of the American Congress.
 

ethnic cleansing

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The removal of people of a specific ethnic group by means of genocide, terror, or forced expulsion.
 

ethnic group

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A group of people that shares distinctive cultural traits.
 

ethnocentric

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A belief in the superiority of a certain ethnic group or race.
 

Euclid

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(circa 300 BCE), Greek mathematician. Considered to be the father of modern geomertry.
 

European Community/European Union

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Economic union between countries in Europe for mutual gain. Originally formed in 1951 as the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), it later became the European Community in 1967, then the European Union in 1991.
 

evolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The gradual change or development of something.
 

excommunicate

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
To exclude a Christian from receiving the Sacraments.
 

executive

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Rrelating to a system that enforces laws.
 

export

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The sending of goods to another country for sale or trade.
 

extermination

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The complete destruction of a group of people.
 

extinction

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The death of all members of a species.
 

extraterritoriality

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A policy that guaranteed European citizens in China were only subject to the laws of their own nation and could only be tried by their own courts.
 

factory

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A central location where goods are manufactured on a large scale.
 

famine

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Widespread hunger caused by the near complete lack of food.
 

fascism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system of government that promotes extreme nationalism, repression, anticommunism, and is ruled by a dictator.
 

Ferdinand and Isabella

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.
 

Ferdinand, Franz

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1863-1914) Archduke of Austria, nephew to the Emperor. He was assainated by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia in 1914. This resulted in the start of World War I.
 

fertilizers

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A substance spread onto soil to increase its ability to support crops. Fertilizers include organic materials, such as manure, but can also be man made chemicals such as nitrates.
 

Feudalism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A social, political, and economic system that dominated all aspects of medieval European life.
 

fief

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An area of land given to a person to farm in exchange for certain obligations.
 

filial piety

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Respect for ones elders especially the family.
 

Filippo Brunelleschi

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Filippo Brunelleschi, (1377 - 1446), was the first great Florentine architect of the Italian Renaissance. His most famous works are all in Florence. His masterpiece is the high, octagonal-ribbed dome of the Duomo (cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore), completed in 1434, the first notable dome erected in Italy since antiquity. Brunelleschi was trained as a sculptor in a Florentine workshop and was a member of the goldsmiths' guild. In the competition for the second set of doors for the Florentine Baptistry, he virtually tied with Ghiberti, who executed the famous "Doors of Paradise." He may have worked in Rome with his friend Donatello. His interests extended to mathematics and engineering and the study of ancient monuments. He made early experiments with perspective in painting, and invented hydraulic machinery and elaborate clockwork, none of which survives. Above all Brunelleschi is remembered as an architect who established new classic canons of serene rhythms, clear geometry, and symmetry, often using the simplest materials: gray pietra serena and whitewashed plaster.
 

Five Pillars of Islam

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Code of behavior for followers of Islam. Includes Charity, Daily Prayer, Profession of Faith, Fasting during Ramadan, and a pilgrimage to Mecca called the hajj.
 

Five Relationships

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Confucian philosophy about social order where everyone has a place and respect is paid to elders, parents, and the government. The relationships are, ruler to ruled, father to son, older brother to younger brother, husband to wife, friend to friend.
 

Five Year Plans

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after World War II. Included massive industrialization and farm collectivization, where peasants lived collectively on government owned farms, often resulted in widespread famine as many peasants resisted this policy.
 

Fleming, Alexander

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1881-1955) English scientist who, in 1928, observed that a mold called Penicillium killed germs. This discovery resulted in the development of antibiotics, which attack or weaken bacteria that cause many diseases. Antibiotics were not widely used until the 1940s.
 

Ford, Henry

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1863-1947) American Industrialist. Ford is best know for his innovations in the auto manufacturing industry. His company was the first to use an assembly line for production.
 

foreign policy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A nation
 

Four Modernizations

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An economic and social program that called for limited privatization of agriculture and industry, encouraged foreign investment and foreign trade, and resulted in a boost for the Chinese economy. Unlike the Great Leap Forward, the Four Modernizations was an economic success.
 

Four Noble Truths

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Siddhartha's Gautama philosophy of the nature of human suffering and its relation to desire is articulated by four statements
 

Fourteen Points Speech

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An address given to the United States
 

fraternity

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A group or society formed by people who share common interests.
 

Frederick the Great

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1712-1786), King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. Enlightened despot who enlarged Prussia by gaining land from Austria when Maria Theresa became Empress.
 

French Indochina

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Area of southeast Asia controlled by France during Imperialism. Includes Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
 

French Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Political revolution in France starting in 1789 that brought about many changes in France. The revolution ultimately ended with a dictatorship under Napoleon Bonaparte before his defeat by the combined powers of Europe.
 

fundamental

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Affecting the underlying principles or structure of something.
 

Galilei, Galileo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1564-1642) Italian astronomer. One of the founders of Europe's scientific revolution, one of his main contributions is the application of the telescope to astronomy. He was able to prove Copernicus
 

Galileo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries , and proved that Copernicus' theory to be correct.
 

Gandhi, Mohandas

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1869-1948) Nationalist leader in India, who called for a non violent revolution to gain his country
 

Ganges River

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
 

Garibaldi, Guiseppe

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1807-1882?) Military leader whose Red Shirt army liberated most of southern Italy, before conquering the northern section. He was instrumental in the unification of Italy.
 

Gautama, Siddhartha

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(563?-483?BCE), Indian philosopher and the founder of Buddhism. Siddhartha was born into the Brahmin caste, and by all account led a luxurious lifestyle. However, he was troubled by the human misery that he saw around him everyday. Upon reflection, he deduced that desire was the root caused of all suffering. Also known as the Buddha.
 

general will

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Name Enlightenment thinker Jean Jacques Rousseau uses to describe majority rule.
 

genetic engineering

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The process of altering life forms by manipulating their genetic structure.
 

Genghis Khan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1167?-1227) One of the Mongol
 

genocide

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The killing of all the people from a ethnic group, religious group, or people from a specific nation.
 

gentry

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Members of the upper class in some social class systems.
 

geocentric model

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Theory of the universe that states the earth is the center, and that the sun revolves around it.
 

Ghana

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert.
 

ghetto

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Term given to poor areas of town where Jews were sent during World War II.
 

Glasnost

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.
 

Global North

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Economic and political designation given to industrialized countries such those in North America and Western Europe, and also including Japan, and Australia. These nations have high standards of living and a high literacy rate.
 

Global South

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Economic and Political designation given to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and South America, many of which were former colonies during European Imperialism. These post colonial nations face low literacy rates, massive unemployment, little to no industrialization, and are generally economically dependent on their former colonial masters.
 

Glorious Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Political revolution in Great Britain in 1688 that put William and Mary on the throne, while limiting the power of the monarchy and making Parliament supreme. This event marks the beginning of a constitutional monarchy in England.
 

Gold Coast

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Name given to the parts of the west coast of Africa by European imperialist due to the amount of gold found in the region.
 

Golden Age

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The first age of the world, an untroubled and prosperous era during which people lived in ideal happiness.
 

Gorbachev, Mikhail

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1931- ), leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His policies of Perestroika and Glasnost, which aimed at revitalizing the Soviet Union contributed to the downfall of communism.
 

government

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The office, function, or authority of a governing individual or body.
 

Great Depression

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world
 

Great Leap Forward

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The economic program designed to increase farm and industrial output though the creation of communes. Communes are similar to Soviet collectives in that groups of people live and work together on government owned farms and in government owned industry.
 

Great Purge

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
 

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A imperialistic system founded by Japan consisting of other Asian countries during the early 20th century. Japan reduced its members to puppet nations, taking their raw materials and using them as new markets.
 

Greco-Roman

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The cultural mixing of both ancient Greek and Roman traditions.
 

Greek column

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Fluted column used in many of their buildings, and copied throughout the world today.
 

Green Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Throughout the 20th century, scientists worked on improving agriculture, especially in areas with high populations. Some of the technologies developed included better irrigation systems so farmers could get water to their crops. New machinery was built to handle larger production and to take the burden of agriculture work off of humans. New chemical fertilizers and pesticides were created to increase food production, and new varieties of grains and livestock were developed also for greater production. The Green Revolution has had only limited success. The high costs associated with many of these new technologies have kept the small farmer from taking advantage of them.
 

greenhouse gas

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A gas such as carbon dioxide, ozone, or water vapor that are a factoring the warming of the Earth
 

Guevara, Che

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1928-1967) Latin American guerilla leader. In the mid 20th century Guevara was instrumental in helping Fidel Castro lead the Cuban Revolution. He was later killed in Bolivia while trying to lead a revolution there.
 

guild

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An association of merchants or craftspeople in medieval Europe, formed to make regulations and set standards for a particular trade or craft.
 

gunpowder

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Chemical compound that burns very quickly. Used in weaponry.
 

Gupta Dynasty

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(320-550 C.E.)Ruling family in India during its golden age. Responsible for many achievements.
 

Gutenberg, Johannes

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1400?-1468) German printer and European pioneer in the use of movable type.
 

habitation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A place where something lives.
 

Haiku

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A 3 line poem that has 17 syllables in the Japanese language, and expresses a single thought, feeling or idea.
 

hajj

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The pilgrimage or holy journey to the city of Mecca
 

Hammurabis Code

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Oldest written system of laws. They were created by King Hammurabi of Babylonia in th mid 18th century BCE and placed on stones tablets for all to see.
 

Hebrew

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Semitic language originating in ancient Palestine and spoken by the Israelites. Modern Hebrew was developed in the 19th and 20th centuries from the ancient written language.
 

Hegira

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Median which was instrumental to the founding of the religion of Islam. Occurs in 622 ACE, which dates the founding of Islam.
 

heliocentric model

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Theory of the universe that states the sun is the center, and that the earth revolves around it.
 

Hellenistic

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Time period from the late 4th century BCE to the 1st century CE that was characterized by Greek achievement and a blending of Persian, Egyptian, Greek, and Indian cultures due to the empire of Alexander the Great.
 

Henry VIII

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1491-1547) King of England who transformed his country into a Protestant nation during the Reformation.
 

Herzl, Theodor

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1860-1904) Leader of Zionist movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
 

hieroglyphics

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system of writing which uses pictures for concepts and ideas.
 

hijacking

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The taking control of a public transport vehicle, such as an airliner or train to use the people aboard as hostages.
 

Hinduism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A polytheistic religion that was formed from a variety of different religious practices. In Hinduism, salvation is achieved through a spiritual oneness of the soul, atman, with the ultimate reality of the universe, Brahma. To achieve this goal, the soul must obtain moksha, or liberation from the samsara, the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. As a result of these basic teachings, Hindus believe in reincarnation, which is influenced by karma (material actions resulting from the consequences of previous actions), and dharma (fulfilling one's duty in life). Because all forms of animal life possess souls, Hindus believe in ahimsa, or that all life is sacred. and should not be harmed. In fact, one animal which Hindus consider to be extremely sacred is the cow. The peaceful and contented existence of cows is considered virtuous by Hindus and would represent a rewarding reincarnation for a soul. For this reason, most Hindus are vegetarians so that they do not harm other living beings. The belief in reincarnation, karma, and dharma also provides the religious justification for the existence of the rigid social structure known as the Caste System.
 

Hippocrates

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(460?-377? BCE) Greek physician. He is considered to be the father of medicine and the ethical standard of treating all patients known as the Hippocratic Oath.
 

Hippocratic Oath

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An promise made new physicians to treat all people fairly, and to seek to preserve life. Named after a ancient Greek physician who is credited with writing it.
 

Hirohito

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1901-1989) Emperor of Japan from 1926 until 1989. He is the last Japanese emperor to be considered divine. Led Japan through World War II.
 

Hiroshima

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Japanese city devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the first atomic bomb on Aug 6th, 1945.
 

Hitler, Adolf

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1889-1945) Austrian-born leader of Germany. He co-founded the Nazi Party in Germany, and gained control of the country as chancellor in 1933. Hitler started World War II with the invasion of Poland. He was responsible for the Holocaust.
 

Ho Chi Minh

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1890-1969) Vietnamese leader who is responsible for ousting first the French, then the United States from his country. Supported by both communist China and the Soviet Union, he guided Vietnam through decades long warfare to emerge as a communist nation.
 

Hobbes, Thomas

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1588-1679) English philosopher and political theorist. Wrote Leviathan, where he favored an absolute government as the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property.
 

Holocaust

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The attempted genocide of European Jews, Gypsies, mentally retarded, homosexuals, and others by Nazi Germany during the Second World War.
 

Holy Land

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Term given to lands in present day Israel that is significant to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
 

Holy Trinity

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Formed by the Creator (Father), Redeemer (Son), and Sustainer (Holy Spirit). Christians believe that these three entities are all part of a single higher power.
 

Hubble Space Telescope

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Large space telescope able to see farther than any other telescope at the end of the 20th century.
 

human and physical geography

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The study of the environment, people, and the resources they use to live.
 

human rights

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The rights that are considered by most societies to belong automatically to all people, including the rights to justice, freedom, and equality.
 

Humanism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system of thought that centers on humans and their values, capacities, and worth; A cultural and intellectual movement of the Renaissance that emphasized secular concerns as a result of the rediscovery and study of the literature, art, and civilization of ancient Greece and Rome.
 

hunting and gathering

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
System of food production for prehistoric peoples. Involves hunting animals and gathering foods grown in the wild.
 

Hussein, Saddam

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1937- ) President of Iraq since 1979. He has led his control into two devastating wars, one against Iran in 1980 to 1988, and the Persian Gulf War in 1990
 

Hutus and Tutsis

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Tribes in Rwanda responsible for decades of warfare.
 

hydroelectric power

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Power that is derived from a moving body of water, such as a river or waterfall.
 

Ibn Sina

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Islamic physician, wrote a book called Canon on Medicine, which was an encyclopedia of Greek, Arabic, and his own knowledge of medicine. This book became the standard medical text in Europe for over five hundred years.
 

idealized realism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Art form practiced by the Greeks during the 5th century BCE. Portrays the human form very realistically, but in its perfect form.
 

ideographs

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Writing system that uses pictures of ideas.
 

ideology

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An organized system of beliefs, values, and ideas. They form the basis of a political, social, and economic philosophy.
 

Imam

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Islam, the leader of prayers and religious scholar.
 

immigration

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The movement of people from one nation to another.
 

Imperialism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The complete control of a weaker nation
 

import

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The bringing in of goods from another country for sale or trade.
 

Inca

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru. The Inca ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century.
 

Indian National Congress

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nationalistic organization in India with the purpose of ending British control. Prominent members include Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
 

Indian Nationalist Movement

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nationalist movement to end British control of India.
 

individualism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A social philosophy which stresses the importance of the individual above society.
 

indulgence

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Letters of forgiveness for one's sins provided by the medieval Church, and one of the causes of the Reformation.
 

Industrial Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In the second half of the 19th century, it was the fundamental change in the way goods were produced through the use of machines, capital, and the centralization of work forces in factories. It completely altered the social, economic, and political structure of most of Europe, Japan, and the United States.
 

industrialization

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The change to industrial methods of production such as the use of factories.
 

infanticide

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
the act of killing an infant
 

inflation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The raising of prices on consumer goods due to an increase in the money supply.
 

information superhighway

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Term given to the Internet due to the amount of information transferred.
 

inherit

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
To gain something when someone dies, such as property or money.
 

insurance

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Financial protection on property or people against loss, theft, or death.
 

interdependence

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Mutual assistance or reliance between two or more parties.
 

International Court of Justice

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Headquartered at the Hague, the Court started work in April of 1946. The Court usually hears only cases brought before it by any of the 189 U.N. Member States, but has made several concessions over the years.
 

International Monetary Fund

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An international organization established to promote monetary cooperation, exchange stability, and economic growth. The IMF also works to lower unemployment and help countries in debt manage their finances.
 

Internet

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A global network of computers that communicate through phone and satellites. The Internet has services such as the World Wide Web and e-mail.
 

interracial marriage

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The marriage of two people from different ethnic backgrounds.
 

invasion

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The entry of forces into a territory through hostile means.
 

Irish Potato Famine

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A famine in 1845 when the main crop of Ireland, potatoes, was destroyed by disease. Irish farmers grew other food items, such as wheat and oats, but Great Britain required them to export those items to them, leaving nothing for the Irish to live on. As a result, over 1 million Irish died of starvation or disease, while millions of others migrated to the United States.
 

Irish Republican Army (IRA)

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A terrorist organization based in Ireland which seeks to remove the British government from the Six Northern Counties which they control.
 

Iron Curtain

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union
 

irrigation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system to bring water to support crops.
 

Islam

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The word Islam, which when translated from Arabic, means "to submit to the will of Allah," is the youngest of the world's major religions. Worshippers of this monotheistic religion are known as Muslims, which means "one who submits to the will of Allah." The Islamic holy book is called the Qur
 

Islamic fundamentalists

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Muslims who believe the Quran to be a literal guide to political, social, and religious life.
 

island

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A land mass surrounded by water.
 

Israeli - Palestinian Conflict

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Conflict over landownership in Israel/Palestine. This conflict has at times involved most of the nations of the Middle East as well as the United States and the Soviet Union. Widespread terrorism against Israel and its allies occurs because of this conflict.
 

Israeli War for Independence

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1948-49) War between Israel and the Arab world over the formation of the nation of Israel.
 

Jiang Jieshi

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1887-1975) Leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government. Also known as Chang Kai Shek.
 

jihad

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Effort in God
 

joint stock company

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A company that sells shares to investors who share in the profits and losses.
 

Joseph II

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The son of Maria Teresa and a enlightened despot who ruled over the Austrian Empire.
 

Judaism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Judaism is the oldest known monotheistic religion still practiced in the world today. Its fundamental teachings have been influential and are the basis for more recently developed religions such as Christianity and Islam. Judaism teaches that there is one God who is the creator of all things. after the Hebrew exodus from Egypt, many Hebrews began to lose their faith in God. During this time, Moses went atop Mount Sinai and returned with two stone tablets containing laws that all Hebrews needed to follow. These laws, recorded in the Exodus 20:3-17, became known as the Ten Commandments.
 

judicial

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Relating to a system that administers justice.
 

Justinians Code

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A law code created by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian about 530 CE. It was a revision of the old Roman law system.
 

Juแrez, Benito

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1806-72) President of Mexico from 1861 to 1863 and 1867 to 1872. He was responsible for many reforms including reducing the power of the Catholic Church.
 

Kabuki theatre

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Feudal Japanese theatre that performed comedic or melodramatic presentations of everyday life or historic events.
 

Kaiser Wilhelm

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1859-1941) King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany whose political policies led his country into World War I. He was forced from power when Germany lost the war.
 

Kami

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Sacred spirits that are worshipped in the Shinto religion of Japan.
 

Kana

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Japanese writing system adapted from Chinese, with the addition of phonetic symbols representing syllables.
 

karma

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Actions in this life resulting from the consequences of a previous life
 

Kellogg-Briand Pact

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A treaty signed in 1928 renouncing war as a means of solving international disputes.
 

Kenyatta, Jomo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1894?-1978) Independence leader who help lead Kenya out of European imperialism after World War II.
 

Khmer Rouge

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A group of communist guerillas in Cambodia during the late 20th century, led by Pol Pot, that gained control of Cambodia after the withdrawal of American troops from the Vietnam War. The initiated a reign of terror, killing over a million people to remove all western influence from the country. This gross violation of human rights ended when Vietnam invaded and occupied the country in 1979. In the 1990s, the United Nations negotiated a peace settlement, and began the democratic process in Cambodia.
 

Khrushchev, Nikita

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1894-1971) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964. Khrushchev was critical of Stalin
 

King Leopold

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1835-1909) King of Belgium who began imperialistic trade inside of Africa which resulted in the Scramble for Africa.
 

Kipling, Rudyard

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1865-1936) British writer and poet. His poem The White Man
 

Koch, Robert

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1843-1910) German physician who, in the 1880
 

Kong Fu Zi

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
See Confucius
 

Korean Bridge

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The term given to process in which cultural diffusion occurred between China and Japan though Korean contact with both civilizations.
 

Korean War

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A war between North Korean, which was supported by both the Soviet Union and communist China, and South Korea, which was supported by the United States and the United Nations. The war occurred between 1950 and 1953 and ended in an armistice and original borders.
 

Kristallnacht

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
On November 9th, 1938, Nazis in German looted, and burned Jewish stores and Synagogues, often beating Jews in the street. Over 90 Jews were killed during Kristallnacht. Also called Night of Broken Glass.
 

Kublai Khan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1215-1294) Grandson of Genghis Khan and founder of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China.
 

Kuomintang

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nationalist Party in China led by Jiang Jieshi, which began a war against the Communist Party led by Mao Zedong. Both fought for control of China, with Mao and the Communists ultimately winning in 1949.
 

Kurds

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Ethnic group that lives in parts of Iraq and Turkey. They often suffer persecution in both countries, and are currently under the protection of the United Nations in Iraq.
 

L'Ouverture, Toussaint

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1743?-1803) Revolutionary leader who is responsible for ousting France from Haiti during the Latin American Revolutions in the early 19th century.
 

Laissez-Faire Economics

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
This was an economic philosophy begun by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations, that stated that business and the economy would run best with no interference from the government. This economic system dominated most of the Industrial Revolution.
 

Landlocked

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Entirely, or almost entirely surrounded by land.
 

Lao Tze

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(570-490 BCE?) Chinese philosopher credited with originating Taoism/Daoism. His teachings were collected and published as the Tao-te Ching.
 

Last Supper, The

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A famous Renaissance painting by Leonardo Da Vinci.
 

Latin American

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The Geopolitical designation for Central and South America and the Caribbean Islands which were settled by the Spanish.
 

Latin American Revolutions

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Political revolutions in various Latin American countries beginning in the late 18th century. These revolutions were aimed at overthrowing the European powers that controlled these nations. Many were successful, but few achieved the success of the American Revolution.
 

latitude

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Lines of equal distance measured north and south of the equator.
 

Laws of the Twelve Tables

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system of laws. Some of the features of this system include, men being equal under the law, having the right to face their accusers, and being considered innocent until proven guilty.
 

lay investiture

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The creation of a Bishop by a non church official, usually a feudal lord.
 

League of Nations

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A multinational peace keeping organization which began as an idea of United States President Woodrow Wilson following the first World War. The Treaty of Versailles created a League with over 40 different countries joining. The United States was not one of them. The League of Nations was to be an international body that would settle future problems through negotiations instead of warfare. The member nations were to work cooperatively through economic and military means to enforce its decisions. However, since the United States did not join, the League never achieved its intentions. While the League did attempt to halt the aggressiveness of Hitler's Germany, their inherent weakness prevented them from stopping World War II.
 

legislative

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Relating to a system that makes laws.
 

Lenin, Vladimir

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1870-1924) Russian revolutionary leader and political theorist. He was the first leader of the new communist government of Soviet Russia. Later, he was also the first leader of the Soviet Union, which was composed of most of the republics of the former Russian Empire.
 

Leonardo da Vinci

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper.
 

Leviathan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A book written by Thomas Hobbes describing his theory that an absolute government was the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property.
 

liberty

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In the political sense, this usually means freedom.
 

line of demarcation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A boundary established by Pope Alexander VI on in 1493 to define the spheres of Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the New World. Part of the Treaty of Tordesillas.
 

Lister, Joseph

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1827-1912) English surgeon who discovered that germs cause post operative infections. He then insisted doctors use antiseptics, substances that kill germs, on their hands and instruments before surgery. This process greatly reduced the number of deaths caused by infection after surgery.
 

Little Red Book

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A book circulated throughout China during the reign of Mao Zedong, which contained his political philosophy for China. It was required reading in all schools.
 

Lloyd George, David

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1863-1945) British Prime Minister from 1916 to 1922, he led Great Britain through World War I. He was one of the formulators of the Treaty of Versailles.
 

Locke, John

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1632-1704) English philosopher and political theorist. He wrote Two Treaties on Government which explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights.
 

Long March

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
March the Mao Zedong and his Communist Party underwent to avoid being captured and killed by China
 

Long Parliament

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1640
 

longitude

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The curving distance east or west of the prime meridian that stretches from the North Pole to the South Pole.
 

Lorenzo de' Medici

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
MediciLorenzo di Piero de' Medici (January 1, 1449 - 8 April 1492) was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the height of the Italian Renaissance. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent (il Magnifico) by his contemporary Florentines, he had a very active life and was an avid patron of the arts; he was also fascinated by technology. However, he was also a very religious man, one who deeply loved his country.

Lorenzo's support for artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Andrea del Verrocchio and Michelangelo Buonarroti was instrumental in the development of Florence as the epicenter of 15th century Renaissance Europe. Although his financial straits made it impossible for him to commission many works himself, he saw to it that they received commissions from other patrons.
 

Louis XIV

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
 

Louis XVI

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1754-1793) King of France between 1774 and 1792. He was overthrown during the French Revolution and later beheaded.
 

Loyola, Ignatius

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1491-1556) Founded the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Jesuits. He worked to combat the Protestant Reformation by providing strong Catholic leadership to monarchs across Europe.
 

Luther, Martin

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1483-1546) Theologian and religious reformer who started the Reformation with his 95 Theses which protested church corruption, namely the sale of indulgences.
 

Machiavelli, Niccolo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1469-1527) Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher of the Renaissance. His greatest work is The Prince, a book of political advice to rulers in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book was used to defend policies of despotism and tyranny. Machiavelli wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power, or that
 

Magellan, Ferdinand

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1480?-1521) Spanish explorer who was the first to circumnavigate the globe.
 

Magna Carta

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A document granting rights to both the Church in England and the Nobility signed by King John in 1215. This is considered to be the beginnings of British democracy.
 

Mahabharata

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Hindu epic poem that was written in Sanskrit in the 5th century BCE. Its most important part is the Bhagavad-Gita.
 

Mali

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert. Greatest ruler was Mansa Musa, who converted to Islam and made a famous pilgrimage.
 

mandate

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A territory that was given to a European nation to administer by the League of Nations following the end of World War I.
 

Mandate of Heaven

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Divine right of rule in China.
 

Mandela, Nelson

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1918 - )A black South African leader who protested the policy of Apartheid and spent over thirty years in prison before becoming the first black president of South Africa.
 

manorialism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord
 

Mansa Musa

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East.
 

Mao Zedong

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People
 

Marco Polo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1254-1324) Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period.
 

Maria Teresa

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An enlightened Despot who ruled the Austrian Empire.
 

market economy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An economy that operates by voluntary exchange in a free market and is not planned or controlled by a central authority; a capitalistic economy.
 

Marshall Plan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Economic aid from the United States used to rebuild Europe after World War II. Named after United States Secretary of State George Marshall.
 

Marx, Karl

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1818-1883), German political philosopher and writer. Coauthor with Friedrich Engels of The Communist Manifesto which described the new philosophy of scientific socialism, which is the basis for modern communism.
 

mass production

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The manufacturing of products on a large scale, usually through the use of machines.
 

massacre

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The killing of large numbers of people
 

Matrilineal

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 

Relating to, based on, or tracing ancestral descent through the maternal line

 

Mau Mau

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Revolutionary group in Kenya who used violent means to force out European settlers.
 

Maurya Dynasty

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(321? BCE - 185? BCE) Dynasty that united most of India under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya. Its greatest ruler, Asoka, converted to Buddhism and was instrumental in its spread.
 

Maurya, Chandragupta

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(?-286 BCE) First king of the Maurya dynasty in India.
 

Mayans

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A Mesoamerican civilization of Central America and southern Mexico. Achievements include mathematics, architecture, and a 365 day a year calendar. They flourished between the 4th and 12th centuries C.E..
 

Mazzini, Guiseppe

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1805-1872), Nationalistic leader in Italy, who started a group called Young Italy in 1831. Young Italy was a nationalistic movement that wanted to end foreign control of Italy.
 

Mecca

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A city in Saudi Arabia where Muslims must make a pilgrimage at least once in their life.
 

Meiji

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1852-1912) Emperor of Japan from 1867 to 1912. He was responsible for the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the rapid modernization and industrialization of Japan.
 

Meiji Restoration

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.
 

Mencius

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(371?-289 BCE), Chinese philosopher, who studied Confucianism. He later refined many of the ideas and spread them across China. Also known as Mengzi, or Meng-tzu.
 

Menes

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(3100? BCE) King of Upper Egypt, united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt
 

mercantilism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The policy of building a nation's wealth by exporting more goods than it imports. Colonies are instrumental in this policy as they supply their parent nations with raw materials that are used to produce finished goods, and then exported back to the colonies. Colonies not only served as a source for the raw materials, but also as an exclusive market for the parent country.
 

merchant

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who sells goods or services. A member of the middle class in most societies.
 

Mesoamerican

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A region of Central America, Mexico, and South America where several pre-Columbian civilizations lived including the Maya, Inca, and Aztecs.
 

messiah

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
According to the Hebrew Bible, an anointed king who will lead the Jews back to the land of Israel and establish justice in the world. According to the Christians, the Messiah was Jesus Christ.
 

Mestizos

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In colonial Latin America, Spanish/Native America who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
 

Mexican Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1910
 

Michelangelo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
 

Middle Ages

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Time period in European history between the fall of Rome in 476 C.E. and the beginning of the Italian Renaissance in the early 15th century.
 

middle class

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Social and economic class usually composed of merchants, artisans, and business people. In some societies, the richest class, but without a title of nobility. The middle class is usually the backbone of society as they are generally more moderate in their economic, social, and political habits.
 

Middle East

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Geo-Political designation of the area stretching from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the western side of the Indian subcontinent. Consists of countries such as Israel, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt.
 

Middle Kingdom (China)

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Term that ancient China used to refer to themselves. The believed they were the center of the Earth, or the Middle Kingdom.
 

Middle Kingdom (Egypt)

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(2040 BCE
 

migration

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The mass movement of people from one area to another.
 

militarism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Political policy that is dominated by the military and the competitive buildup of arms.
 

military

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The armed forces of a nation.
 

Milosevic, Slobodan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1941- ) Former Yugoslavian President. He fought to keep non-Serbs from breaking away from Yugoslavia. During the 1990s, he used his army to terrorize ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, who were asking for self rule. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) finally put a stop to this violence, and Milosevic has since been arrested and awaits trial for war crimes.
 

minority

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A small group of people from a larger group.
 

missionary

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who spreads the teachings of a religion.
 

Mixed Economy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An Economic system that allows for the simultaneous operation of publicly and privately owned enterprise.
 

Model Parliament

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1295) English Parliament where bishops and abbots, peers, two knights from each shire, and two representatives from each town all met in modern format for the first time.
 

modernization

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
To change something to make it conform to modern standards
 

Mohammed

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Prophet of Allah; founder of Islam.
 

Moksha

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Hinduism, it is the release from the cycle of reincarnation through unification with Brahma.
 

Mona Lisa

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A famous Renaissance painting by Leonardo Da Vinci.
 

monarch

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 

A state ruled or headed by a monarch.

 

monarchy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch.
 

monotheism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The belief in one god or goddess.
 

Monroe Doctrine

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference.
 

Moses

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
He is considered a founder of Judaism due to his role in the liberation of the Hebrews from Egypt, and his delivery of the Ten Commandments from Mount Sinai sometime around 2000 BCE.
 

mosque

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A domed Islamic religious building.
 

movable type printing machines

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A printing machine that used individual letters that could be moved after each printing. This allowed for faster and easier printing.
 

Muezzin

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Islam, one who issues a call to prayer, causing the faithful to gather at the local Mosque.
 

mulattoes

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In colonial Latin America, Spanish/African who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
 

multinational company

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A company that does business in more than one country, usually by setting up branch offices.
 

mummification

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The process of preserving a corpse by removing the moisture from it before burial. This process was practiced by many different cultures.
 

musket

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Handheld weapon that uses small balls of lead as projectiles and gunpowder as the blasting agent.
 

Muslim League

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nationalist movement in India by the Islamic population who did not feel represented by the Indian National Congress. They initially formed to protexct Muslim rights, but later called for an independent state.
 

Mussolini, Benito

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
 

N๔ theatre

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Feudal Japanese theater where men wore decorative mask and performed on stage, while a chorus sang the lines. N๔ theatre reflected Buddhist ideas such as resisting selfish behavior.
 

NAFTA

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
North American Free Trade Agreement, an economic treaty between Canada, the United States, and Mexico to lower tariffs and create a free trade environment. NAFTA was ratified by its member nations in 1994.
 

Nagasaki

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Japanese city devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the second atomic bomb on Aug 8th, 1945.
 

NASA / National Aeronautical and Space Administration

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
American space agency responsible for administrating the United State
 

Nasser, Gamal Abdel

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1918-1970) President of Egypt from 1956 to 1970. He was responsible for nationalizing the Suez Canal, and was an important leader to the Arab world. He was often at odds with the West and Israel.
 

nation-state

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An independent state or country.
 

National Assembly

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
First new government during the first stage of the French Revolution.
 

nationalism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Pride in one
 

Native Americans & Slaves

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In colonial Latin America, lowest social class. They had no rights and were often treated poorly and used as a labor source by the plantation owning Creoles.
 

NATO

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an international defense alliance between the United States, Great Britain, and others formed in 1949 as a response to the spread of communism.
 

Natural resources

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Resources that are supplied by nature. Nations often use these to increase their economic output, usually with little regard to environmental factors. A growing environmentalist movement is beginning to apply pressure to these governments by forcing a public officilals to discuss these issues.
 

natural rights

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Concept of John Locke
 

navigable rivers

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A river that is able to be navigated by boat.
 

Nazi

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Name of German National Socialist Party, which gained control of Germany in 1933 under the leadership of Adolf Hitler.
 

Nehru, Jawaharlal

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1889-1964) Indian nationalist leader and the first prime minister of independent India from 1947 to 1964. Along with Mohandas Gandhi, he was instrumental in freeing India from Britain
 

Neolithic Age

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(10,000 BCE - 5000 BCE) New Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the development of agriculture and permanent settlements.
 

Neolithic Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The introduction of agriculture, domesticating animals, this leads to the development of human civilazation.
 

New Economic Policy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An economic policy of Vladimir Lenin
 

New Imperialism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A policy of economic, political, and social of one country by another. Industrialized countries sought control of other countries for raw materials and new markets.
 

New Kingdom

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1550 BCE - 1100 BCE) Period in ancient Egyptian history characterized by strong pharaohs who conquered an empire that stretched from Nubia in the south, to the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia.
 

New Testament

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The second half of the Christian Bible. It describes the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, as well as other Christian teachings.
 

Newcomen, Thomas

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1663-1729) Developed a steam engine powered by coal.
 

Newton, Isaac

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1642-1727) English scientist who discovered gravitation, invented calculus, and formulated the laws of motion.
 

Niccolo Machiavelli

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Machiavelli Niccol๒ Machiavelli (May 3, 1469
 

Nirvana

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Buddhism, spiritual enlightenment.
 

Nkrumah, Kwame

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1909-1972) Independence leader who help lead Ghana out of European imperialism after World War II.
 

nomad

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who belongs to a group of people who move from place to place seasonally in search of food and water.
 

Northwest Passage

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Mythical water route from the northeast region of North America to the Pacific Ocean. Many people during the Age of Exploration searched for this route that does not exist. However, the search resulted in the discovery of much of the northeast region of North America by the Europeans.
 

Nuclear Family

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A family unit consisting a mother, father and their children.
 

nuclear weapons

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Weapons in which the explosive potential is controlled by nuclear fission or fusion.
 

Nuremburg Trials

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
War crime trials held in Nuremburg after World War II to try the surviving Nazis concerning the Holocaust, aggressive war making, mistreatment of prisoners among other things.
 

occupation (military)

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The control of one country by another through the stationing of military troops and military government.
 

Old Imperialism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A European policy of conquest that occurs in the 15th through 18th centuries in Africa, India, the Americas, and parts of Asia The motives were the same for most areas, the establishment of lucrative trade routes. Various European countries dominated these trades routes and one time or another, and a some countries, such as Great Britain and Spain, came to dominate entire countries.
 

Old Kingdom

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(2575 BCE
 

Old Testament

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The first half of the Christian Bible, that describes the creation of the world, the history of ancient Israel, the Ten Commandments, and contains the Psalms and the prophetic books. Also is the Hebrew Torah.
 

Oligarchy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Government by a few, especially by a small fraction of persons or families.
 

Olmecs

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A Mesoamerican civilization that flourished around 1200 C.E.. Achievements include irrigation, a simple calendar and writing system, and small cities.
 

OPEC

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, an international organization concerned with the crude-oil policies of its member states. This organization was founded in 1960, and has 11 members, including Kuwait, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Indonesia, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. Due to their control of most of the world
 

Open Door Policy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism.
 

Opium War

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In the early 19th century, Great Britain began importing opium, processed from poppy plants grown in the Crown Colony of India, into China. Chinese officials attempted to ban the importation of the highly addictive opium, but ultimately failed. The British declared war on China in a series of conflicts called the Opium Wars. Superior British military technology allowed them to claim victory and subject the Chinese to a series of unequal treaties.
 

oracle bones

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In ancient China, they were pieces of bone or turtle shell used by Shang priests to tell the future. They would write a question addressed to either one of the gods, or an ancestor on the bone, then heat it until it cracked. They believed that by studying the pattern of cracks, one could learn the answer to the question. Oracle bones are the oldest example of Chinese writing.
 

Orlando, Vittorio

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1860-1952) Prime Minister of Italy during World War I. He was one of the formulators of the Treaty of Versailles.
 

Orthodox Christianity

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A branch of Christianity developed in the Byzantine Empire, after its split from the Roman Empire. It spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean and Russia.
 

Osama bin Laden

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1957- ) Saudi Arabian multimillionaire and leader of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda. He is responsible for numerous terrorist attacks on the United States including the destruction of the World Trade Center.
 

Ottoman Empire

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Hereditary nation state centered in Turkey. It was founded in the late 13th century after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire and extended across most of Asia Minor and the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire collapsed shortly after World War II.
 

ozone layer

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The layer of the upper atmosphere where ozone collects. This layer absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.
 

Pacific Rim

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The countries that border the Pacific Ocean, specifically, the countries of East Asia, considered as an economic unit.
 

pagoda

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A multistoried building with the corners of the roof curved up that were used as a temple.
 

Pahlavi, Muhammad Reza

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1919-1980), Dictator ruler of Iran from 1941 to 1979. He was supported by the United States throughout most of the Cold War due to his anti communist stance. Overthrown during the Iranian Revolution in 1979.
 

Paleolithic Age

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(750,000 BCE - 10,000 B.C.E.) Old Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the use of stone tools and the use of hunting and gathering as a food source.
 

Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
One time terrorist organization, now considered to be a legitimate political body whose goals have been to create a nation-state for the displaced Palestinians. The PLO is lead by Yasir Arafat.
 

Pan Africanism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nationalistic movement which emphasized the unity of all Africans, and sought to end foreign control.
 

Pan Slavism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nationalistic movement which emphasized the unity of all Slavic peoples, and sought to end foreign control of various Slavic nations.
 

Panama Canal

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A canal that crosses the isthmus of Panama connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Built by the United States between 1904 and 1914.
 

Pantheon

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A domed temple in Rome that was completed in 27 BCE, and still stands today.
 

papyrus scrolls

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Paper like material made from the reeds of the papyrus plant. It was used by the Egyptians for the writing and storing of documents.
 

parliament

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A government's legislative body.
 

parliamentary democracy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A form of government where the citizens elect members to represent them in a parliament, or legislative assembly.
 

Parthenon

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A large temple dedicated to the goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. It was built in the 5th century BCE, during the Athenian golden age.
 

partnership

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The cooperative relationship between two or more people who are involved in the same activity.
 

Pasteur, Louis

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1822-1895) French scientist who discovered the link between germs and disease. He also showed that killing germs, often prevented the spread of certain diseases.
 

patrician

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A member of the upper class of ancient Roman society.
 

patrilineal

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Relating to, based on, or tracing ancestral descent through the paternal line.
 

patron

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Someone who provides support to a specific cause and/or person/people.
 

Pax Mongolia

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Also known as the Mongol Peace. A time when global trade expanded due to the political stability provided by Mongol rulers.
 

Pax Romana

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A 200 hundred year period of relative peace throughout the Roman Empire. Occurs during the first two centuries C.E..
 

peasantry

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Members of the lowest class in some social class systems.
 

peninsula

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An area of land surrounded on three sides by water. Italy, Greece, and the southern part of India are all peninsulas.
 

Peninsulares

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In colonial Latin America, Spanish official sent to govern Latin American colonies. They controlled government completely.
 

Perestroika

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise.
 

Pericles

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(495? BCE-429? BCE) Athenian statesman. He was the central ruler of Athens during its golden age. He was the central patron behind many of their achievements. He was also a very skilled speaker. Athens City-State of Ancient Greece and center of Greek golden age that occurred in the 5th century BCE.
 

Perry, Matthew

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1794-1858) Commodore. United States Navy officer who is responsible for opening Japan to trade and imperialism.
 

persecution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Treating a person, or a group of people unfairly or cruelly due to ethnic background, gender, or other difference.
 

Persian Gulf War

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1990
 

pesticides

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Chemicals used to destroy insects and other pests.
 

Peter the Great

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1672-1725) Czar of Russia. He was responsible for the westernization of Russia in the 18th century.
 

pharaoh

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In ancient Egypt, title given to the ruler who was considered both king and god.
 

Philip II

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1527-1598) King of Spain from 1556 to 1598. Absolute monarch who helped lead the Counter Reformation by persecuting Protestants in his holdings. Also sent the Spanish Armada against England.
 

philosopher

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A person who seeks to understand and explain the nature of things around them. A scholar of philosophy.
 

philosophy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system of thought devoted to the examination of ideas such as truth, existence, reality, causality, religion, and freedom
 

Phoenicians

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An early trading civilization located in present day Lebanon and Syria along the Mediterranean. They produced various products, such as glass, papyrus scrolls, and dyes, and established trade across the entire Mediterranean Sea. The Phoenician trade empire benefited most cultures in this region. As their trade expanded, they setup colonies throughout the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians also developed an alphabet to keep track of their business dealings. This alphabet was later adopted and adapted by the Greeks and Romans, and is the basis for the western alphabets of today. Phoenician trade is responsible for the great exchange of ideas and culture that occurred during this time period.
 

pictographs

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Writing system that uses drawings of objects.
 

pilgrimage

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A religious journey to visit a shrine or other holy site.
 

Pizarro, Francisco

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1476?-1541) Spanish conquistador who was responsible for the conquest of the Incan Empire.
 

plebeian

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A member of the lower class of ancient Roman society.
 

Pol Pot

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1925-1998) Leader of Cambodia from 1975 to 1979. Pol Pot is responsible for the deaths of almost 2 million of his own people due to starvation, execution, and beatings.
 

political autonomy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A nation governing itself independently from a centralized point.
 

political ideologies

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An organized system of political beliefs, values, and ideas.
 

political rights

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Rights such as voting, and the ability to hold public office.
 

polytheism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The belief in many gods or goddesses.
 

Pope

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church. Chosen by the College of Cardinals.
 

Pope Urban II

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1040?-1099) The head of the Roman Catholic Church who issued the proclamation the began the First Crusade.
 

porcelain

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A hard, fine ceramic material used to make a variety of products.
 

power loom

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A device that combined thread to make cloth using steam power.
 

Pre-Columbian

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Period of North and South American history before the arrival of the Europeans in the late 15th century.
 

predestination

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The idea of Calvinist Protestants that certain people were pre-selected to go to heaven.
 

priest

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A spiritual leader in a variety of religions.
 

Prince Metternich

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1773-1859) Chancellor of the Astro-Hungarian Empire between 1821 and 1848. He was the most powerful political figure in Europe between 1814 and 1848. He was driven from power in the Revolutions of 1848.
 

Prince, The

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A book of political advice written by Niccolo Machiavelli during the Renaissance in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book was used to defend policies of despotism and tyranny. Machiavelli wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power, or that
 

Princip, Gavrilo

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1894 -1918) Serbian nationalist/terrorist who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in 1914. This event resulted in the start of World War I.
 

proletariat

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Term given to the working class people in society.
 

property

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Something of value that is owned by a person.
 

protectorate

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A country or region that is controlled by a more powerful country.
 

Protestant

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Member of Christian relgious sect which formed during the Protestant Reformation. Protestants reject the authority of the Roman Catholic Church.
 

Protestants

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 

A member of a Western Christian church whose faith and practice are founded on the principles of the Reformation, especially in the acceptance of the Bible as the sole source of revelation, in justification by faith alone, and in the universal priesthood of all the believers, and refers to the theologies of Luther, Calvin, or Zwingli.

 

provisional government

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A temporary government assembled during times of change.
 

Prussia

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Former independent kingdom and state of Germany. In the late 19th century, it formed the central state of the German Empire, which was one of the largest in Europe.
 

Ptolemy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(100?-170 CE) Greek astronomer, mathematician, and geographer. His geocentric model of the universe lasted until the 16th century.
 

Puritan Revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Political and Religious revolution in England between 1640 and 1660. The monarchy was abolished in favor of a Republic led by Oliver Cromwell. It ended with the seating of Charles II on the throne. Also known as the English Revolution.
 

Puritanism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Movement in the English church in the late 16th to remove all catholic influences and purify.
 

Put Out System

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Manufacturing system where work was distributed and retrieved from individuals in their homes.
 

pyramid

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A triangular shaped building.
 

Pythagoras

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(582?-500?BCE) Greek mathematician responsible for the Pythagorean Theorem which states the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
 

quipas

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A record keeping system that used colored, knotted string developed by the Incan Civilization.
 

Quran

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Islamic holy book.
 

Rabbi

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Jewish holy men charged with conducting religious services, ensuring that Jewish laws are observed, and serving as a spiritual guide for the community.
 

Racism

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Discrimination or prejudice based on race.
 

Ramadan

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The ninth month of the Muslim calendar. All Muslims must fast during daylight hours, except the very young or sick.
 

Ramayana

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Hindu epic story about the hero Rama who was the incarnation of the god Vishnu.
 

Rasputin, Grigory

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1872-1916) Russian peasant and self-proclaimed holy man. He was friends with the ruling Romanov family, and sometime advisor to Czarina Alexandra. His advice was on of the factors leading to the Russian Revolution.
 

raw materials

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Various materials found in nature used in manufacturing such as wood, coal, and oil.
 

recant

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
To reject a belief or withdraw something previously said.
 

Reconquista

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The re-conquest of Spain by the Christians after centuries of Islamic domination.
 

Red Guard

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Militaristic group of students in China who brutalized anyone who criticized Mao
 

Red Shirts

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Nationalistic group/army created and led by Guiseppe Garibaldi to end foreign control of Italy during the 19th century.
 

Reformation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The protest against perceived wrong doings by the Catholic Church during the early 16th century. Main leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin.
 

reincarnation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The rebirth of a soul into another body.
 

relay runners

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The passing of information through a series of runners.
 

religion

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Belief in a reverence for a supernatural power or
 

Renaissance

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A rebirth of cultural and intellectual pursuits after the stagnation of the Middle Ages. This period in European history, from about the 14th through 16th centuries, features major cultural and artistic change.
 

Rennisance Era

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 

The humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning that originated in Italy in the 14th century and later spread throughout Europe.

 

reparations

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Monetary compensation to correct something that was done wrong.
 

representative democracy

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A system of government where the legislative, judicial, and executive powers are held by directly or indirectly elected officials.
 

republic

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political system in which a country is ruled by law, has representative government, and is democratic in nature.
 

resources

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
An asset that is beneficial to a country or people.
 

reverence

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The respect or devotion that others show someone or something
 

revolution

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
a dramatic change in ideas, practice, or government.
 

Rhodes, Cecil

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1853-1902) British statesman who was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa. He founded the De Beers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world
 

rigid social class system

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A social class system where there is no mobility. A person remains in the same class their entire life.
 

river

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A moving body of water that usually has its source in an area of high ground.
 

river delta

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The end of a river where rich deposits of silt build up. This is important to human habitation due to the excellent source of good farmland.
 

river valley

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A valley that is carved out by the river. Often have fertile land, and are the sites for the earliest civilizations.
 

Roman Catholic

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A branch of Christianity based in Rome. The original Christian church.
 

Roman Empire

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The territories ruled by ancient Rome which at one time encompassed most of the Mediterranean world and parts of France, England, and Germany. The empire lasted from 27 BCE to 395 CE.
 

Roosevelt Corollary

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A political policy of the United States by President Theodore Roosevelt that states only the United States could intervene in the affairs of South America.
 

Rousseau, Jean Jacques

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1712-1778) French writer and Enlightenment philosopher who wrote a book called, The Social Contract, where he stated that people were basically good, and that society, and its unequal distribution of wealth, were the cause of most problems. Rousseau believed that government should be run according to the will of the majority, which he called the General Will. He claimed that the General Will would always act in the best interest of the people.
 

rudder

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A device used to steer a ship. It is usually shaped like a paddle and is on the back of the boat.
 

russification

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
A policy in Russia to make all of the peoples under their control conform to Russian culture and language. It was used in both the Russian Empire and later, in the Soviet Union.
 

Russo-Japanese War

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious.
 

sacraments

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Religious practices such as baptism, and receiving the Eucharist.
 

sacred

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Worthy of or regarded with religious worship, and/or respect.
 

Sahara Desert

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The world
 

Salt March

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
(1930) Passive resistance campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.
 

Samsara

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
In Hinduism, the term given to the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
 

samurai

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Warrior class during Japan
 

sanitation

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
Services including the collection and disposal of sewage and garbage.
 

Sanskrit

โดย Dr. Prin Singhanart - พฤหัสบดี, 28 กรกฎาคม 2005, 4:27PM
 
The extinct language of ancient India. Spoken between fourteenth and fifth centuries BCE. Still used today in classic literature.