It looks like your web server is not using PHP-FPM (Server API: Apache 2.0 Handler) and so isn't reading configuration files from /etc/php/7.4/fpm/conf.d. In fact the server isn't reading any configuration files, both Loaded Configuration File and Additional .ini files should have files, e.g.:
So could it be that Apache is configured to use mod_php, but PHP and its extensions are configured for use with PHP-FPM?
I'm not an Ubuntu expert but setting up PHP for use with Apache is such a common operation I would expect the packages to just work on install. If I get time I'll set up an Ubuntu VM to see if I can work out how this should be set up. Or you could share with us any steps you followed to set up PHP and Apache.
But somehow the Apache and/or PHP configuration on this server isn't set up correctly.