chmod??!!! Thought your stack trace showed Windows!
Make the ownerships/permissions liberal ... the warning shows moodle tried to rename a temp thing.
Which also brings us to the settting in your PHP for which temp directory to use for such things.
Look in the DB section of config-dist.php for a collation line.
What's in there is how moodle will install ... DB tables then will be created with that collation.
Again, use CLI install.php .. for that to work, php must have the php-cli included - normal installs of php do have that.
To check ... via ssh as root user in the system.
shows path to a php exeutable - like /usr/bin/php
Use the full path to that php exec and add the -v for version.
Should see something like (below from a server I admin):
[root@server cli]# which php
[root@server cli]# /usr/bin/php -v
PHP 7.1.29 (cli) (built: May 13 2019 19:00:22) ( NTS )
Copyright (c) 1997-2018 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v3.1.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2018 Zend Technologies
with Zend OPcache v7.1.29, Copyright (c) 1999-2018, by Zend Technologies
See the (cli) above?
Again, the problem is with the special security on creating the admin user when using web based install.
CLI doesn't have that 'special security' for web based install.