Qualifications for this response ... none ... don't run windows, don't run MySQL version 8.x.x, and thus haven't seen the problem.
However doing prelim for the true Windows experts, will ask about MySQL ... version 8.0.what? Is it a GA release or one prior to that?
And some other info found ... not saying you should act ... so consider this to be just shared info ...
Compatibility with MySQL 8.0.x
Fix Version/s: 3.3.7, 3.4.4, 3.5.1
One of the postings in the tracker ...
Another limitation we definitely need to be mindful of (and a limitation we probably have to eventually document) is the fact that MySQL 8.0.4+ changed the auth plugin to caching_sha2_password (see here), so if you're setting up one of the newer versions for testing, you'll need to switch back to the old plugin for it to work with Moodle.
It looks like the mysqli connector doesn't have support for this method yet. See here
All of the errors you show involve context path.