I don't know if this is the best way to speed things up, but you can speed things up a little by incrementing the version number in a version.php file and then installing the plugin. It at least saves the time of uninstalling it.
Might also help to have a shortcut/bookmark/tab to open the install page faster. If you're on Windows, you can create a shortcut to the webpage on your desktop, and then right click it, select properties, and set a key combination to run that shortcut, so you could at least open that page with a three key combo instead, as well.
If there are faster means, I'd also like to know!