Use the built-in conditional access functionality in Moodle.
- Set up the quiz.
- Add the activities to the course, with the activities for different grade ranges in different sections.
- Edit each section and click 'Add restriction', to add a 'grade' restriction on that section, so the activities there only show to users who got grades in a particular range in the quiz.
Note, you can add restrictions to each activity, rather than a section, but if there are several activities required based on a quiz result, then restricting access to the entire section is probably more appropriate.
Obviously, this doesn't handle fine-grained restrictions, per question, but that could be handled by either a) having multiple quizzes, with each one handling access to a different set of activities, or b) developing a custom access restriction that grants access based on a specific question (rather than an entire quiz grade).