Use Moodle's Database activity. You can add the questions as fields.
To prevent students from editing their submissions, remove the "Edit" icon from the templates.
To prevent students from seeing each other's answers, "require approval" (in the database's settings), then remove the "Approve" icon from the templates.
To allow a teacher to write notes, simply enable comments in the database's settings. This will be visible to the student who has submitted it.
If you need any further help, let me know..