I think that is a resounding no.
That said...there might be a work around. If you hid the categories but then created a special "page" with the courses for the first category and then added a restriction for the page which only shows the page for users with a specific field criteria in their profile.
Practical Example: I create a category Human Resources and have a dozen courses for Human Resources. Then I hide the category and I add a topic to the front page that says Course Options (or something). I add a page that I call Human Resources. I add a description that says Courses for Human Resources Professionals. I create a link in the page content for each course in the category. In Restrict Access, I choose to add a restriction based on User Profile Field. I choose Department must be equal to Human Resources. Only people who are listed as Human Resources can access (and maybe see...have to test that) the page. Save.
It is a little more work (for me it would be a huge amount, as I usually have two thousand courses per fiscal year, for 10-12 agencies with about...oh, I don't know, 70 department options (or more)...but I might do it differently...that's just an example...
Roles and permissions
Category view by rule
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