Isn't the documentation a wiki that anyone (e.g. you) could improve? Not sure if it is restricted...
I don't think this specific issue you've raised is mainly a documentation problem (although it probably could use improvement). Rather, the actual interface is missing something.
Half the necessary information actually is included on the configuration screen. If you look at the Installed cache stores table, you'll see that it has a Supports column listing the features of each backend. So memcache doesn't list data guarantee while other stores do.
What is missing is that the Known cache definitions table does not have a corresponding Requires column which would then list data guarantee. Seems like it should probably be quite simple to add this - I wonder if there's already a tracker issue? Not volunteering, I'm afraid - I have a lot of work to do lately (I did code a couple of other niceish core Moodle fixes in recent weeks).
With the right information in place it would be much clearer - and the documentation then might also need some improvement, but you wouldn't need to start adding tables in there as well, because it would be covered on-screen.
Given the complexity of the screen, I would suggest that it also might benefit from some brief popup help ? icons on the column headings. For example, this type of issue could be covered on the help for Supports or Requires (well that might be the same help text covering both). There is no popup help at all on that page at present.