If you click on any of those security issues, you'll see in which Moodle version they were fixed. Generally-speaking, if you are running a "supported" version of Moodle, You can patch the security issues by upgrading to the latest in that version. For example, you are running Moodle 2.7.0. The security issues will be fixed if you upgrade to Moodle 2.7.7+. Doing so should be a minor upgrade that shouldn't make any major changes to the way Moodle works.
And if you were to want to upgrade to 2.8, as long as you upgraded to 2.8.5+ and not 2.8.0 the security issues would be fixed in that version as well.
Best advice to keeping hackers out of Moodle: keep the environment patched, upgrade to a supported Moodle version, upgrade to the latest release in that version as soon as security issues are announced.