I just finished reading an excellent article about feedback in education, and what makes it more or less effective.
John Hattie and Helen Timperley, "The Power of Feedback", Review of Educational Research, March 2007, Vol. 77, No. 1, pp. 81-112 DOI: 10.3102/003465430298487
The article summarises a large amount of the evidence that has been collected in the literature over the years (see, for example, Table 3). It then presents and discusses a model of feedback to enhance learning (Figure 1). The authors argue that feedback is most effective it must answer three questions (for the student and/or the the teacher):
- Where am I going? (What are the goals?)
- How am I going? (What progress is being made toward the goal?)
- Where to next? (What
activities need to be undertaken to make better progress?)
(Those questions are interrelated.) Also, feedback operates at four levels which are more or less effective depending the situation:
- the level of task performance,
- the level of process of understanding how to do a task,
- the regulatory or metacognitive process level, or
- the self or personal level (unrelated to the specifics of the task).
(The last of those is generally not effective.)
There is a lot of great discussion about all that, and how it relates to the evidence, so I recommend this article if you are interested in this sort of thing. There is certainly good stuff here for thinking about how to why to build and use Moodle quizzes and other activities.
A very valuable section across the paper (page 94.):
Less effective learners have minimal self-regulation strategies, and they depend much more on external factors (such as the teacher or the task) for feedback. They rarely seek or incorporate feedback in ways that will enhance their future learning or self-regulation strategies. Self-assessment is a self-regulatory proficiency that is powerful in selecting and interpreting information in ways that provide feedback.
There are two major aspects of self-assessment: self-appraisal and self-management (Paris & Winograd, 1990). Self-appraisal relates to students' facility to review and evaluate their abilities, knowledge states, and cognitive strategies through a variety of self-monitoring processes. Self-management is the monitoring and regulating of students' ongoing behavior through planning, correcting mistakes, and using fixup strategies.
When students have the metacognitive skills of self-assessment, they can evaluate their levels of understanding, their effort and strategies used on tasks, their attributions and opinions of others about their performance, and their improvement in relation to their goals and expectations. They can also assess their performance relative to others' goals and the global aspects of their performance. As students become more experienced at self-assessment, multiple dimensions of performance can be assessed (Paris & Cunningham, 1996). Most important, students know how and when to seek and receive feedback from others. Students' willingness to invest effort in seeking and dealing with feedback information relates to the transaction costs invoked at the self-regulatory level.
These transaction costs include effort costs (the effort necessary for feedback
search), face costs (the evaluative effects of others on the individual for seeking
feedback), and inference costs (the implications of inferential errors resulting from
inaccurately interpreting feedback; Ashford & Cummings, 1983; de Luque &
Sommer, 2000). The benefit incurred to offset these costs is a reduction in the gap
between current and desired or expected performance. It is the existence of evaluative
uncertainty that makes seeking feedback worth incurring the related costs
(Trope, 1975, 1980). When the cost/benefit ratio becomes prohibitive, however,
people refrain from seeking feedback.
yes-twas the framework I needed-thanks for that.
I work with direct corrective feedback in EFL context in S. Korea. I'm a big fan of direct corrective feedback. As a student, a lot of times it's difficult to be bothered with reviewing feedback. I find this is especially true for less motivated learners.
I propose a patch for moodle's text editor which allows teachers to explicitly provide direct corrective feedback, instead of feedback through comments which require more cognitive expenditure in order to identy the referent. Basically, if a teacher sees something that needs commenting, that comment should be placed directly in that location.
Would it be possible for moodle developers to add a patch to the present text editor, or add an alternate text editor altogether, which allowed for similar review options found on software like Microsoft Word?
Does that already exist?
I should clarify my last post. I propose we start a conversation to begin a patch which allow teachers to provide direct corrective feedback within the text editor box.
I could easily see somehing like this not coming to fruition for years. Being able to provide explicit feedback within the text editor box does seem like something the future should bring.
I do not know if it is still maintained.
I like Marginalia. It would be good for some of my more advanced writers. Sadly, I mostly deal with low/middle level English (EFL) learners.
My final 2c worth here Daniel. Just a suggestions.
- Student Writes in a forum post.
- Teacher Edits the forum Post.