When it comes down to it, Moodle is just php code, so as long as you can get IIS or Apache to run php on Windows Server 2012, I can't see why it wouldn't work. When it comes down to it, Microsoft calls it an incremental upgrade (version 6.2) from Server 2008 (version 6.0) and plenty here are using that, so it should work. I probably won't be much help if you run into problems because although I'm primarily a "Windows guy", our Moodle is hosted off-site on Debian using Apache... We aren't yet ready to move our internal web apps to Server 2012.
Installing and upgrading help
New installation - Server OS
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