I think you are confusing outcome marking with progress. We are not trying to answer at which point the student ultimately knows the criteria, just that they have. The overwhelming feedback we have received (including US K-12 institutions) is to remove the dependency on scales and the display of duplicated outcomes in the gradebook in order to reduce the confusion they cause. We are not going to force the instructor to assess each student for each graded activity for each related outcome (for each attempt!) as is currently being done with Outcomes. That simply inundates the gradebook with a ton of data that is only marginally useful to monitor progress, when that data could be collected separately.
The instructor will know whether the student has achieved an outcome, so we give them the ability to mark that achievement and give them the applicable data to make the assessment. Using the definitions from your article, the "Outcome Attempt" would translate to the Product criteria, which the instructor could access from the marking screens. They would also have access to resource views against supplementary materials or attempts against ungraded activities, which could be used as Process criteria. Finally, we have recommendation plugins that can analyze the student's attempts and make an informed recommendation about his or her progress towards the outcome. And at the end of the course, each student is marked as having Met or Not Met an outcome, which they will carry with them across the site.