Some more information that might be helpful:
I've made no recent changes to my config nor run any updates. I was able to launch a new EC2 instance using an image from about a week ago that seems to be running just fine, though an image from 2 days ago has the same problem. On the problem instance I can't access either Moodle or PHPMyAdmin, but if I reboot the server I can access both for roughly 2 minutes before I receive the following errors:
For Moodle I get: "Error reading from database"
For PHPMyAdmin: "Cannot start session without errors, please check errors given in your PHP and/or webserver log file and configure your PHP installation properly."
I've been using Moodle for 6 Years since 1.9 and have never had it just stop working unless there was a server issue. Again any info you have would be helpful. I can restore, but I'd like to prevent this from happening to myself and others again!