both before and after you checkout the MOODLE_24_STABLE branch, can you please check the files mod/data/version.php, mod/glossary/version.php and mod/assign/version.php and look at what is their $module->version value?
Also, if possible, can you execute the following two SQL queries and then post all the results here?
# SELECT * FROM mdl_config WHERE name='version'; # SELECT name, version FROM mdl_modules;
I still believe it is a local issue. Although there may be a bug, of course.