I can only guess ... have to remember that what we've done is not necessarily 'standard operating prodedure' for moving from local to server. I did recommend that perhaps the easiest path was to backup courses on the local system and restore them to the online server.
A brief explanation of what's going on ... I think ...
The file system in MDL 2 docs to read:
MDL 2 now has a document management system which, upon upload of a file, creates a unique hash and renames the file using the hash reference. If, on the local system, one looks in moodledata/filedir/ one could find (in your case) a 10 folder and contained therein a 04 folder that contains a file with the name of 1004288e955eedeba42823dce243d5c5bed3521d.
Notice the file doesn't show a file name extension. However, one could deduct the type of file using:
head -n 1 1004288e955eedeba42823dce243d5c5bed3521d
while in an ssh shell located in /moodledata/filedir/10/04/
Since your online server was installed using a script provided by hosting service ... question ... did you upload (via *binary mode* FTP) the entire moodledata directory from the local server replacing the moodledata directory on the server? If you did not, the references in the DB don't match the hashed directories in /moodledata/filesdir/
While 'correcting' this problem is 'educational' and one would really begin to learn how Moodle works (or doesn't in this case), am wondering if going to 'plan A' (backup courses on the local system, then restoring them to the online system) isn't still the easiest path to get up and running.
I see by your other posting, the DB imported may not have had the character set set to utf8 properly. Editing an .sql dump is always prone to human error.
Using whatever tool you have (phpmyadmin) check the character set of the DB for the Moodle.
** Will repeat, think the easiest fix at this point is to backup courses on the local system and restore them to the online system. **
After you get those backups restored and tested, remove the older courses.
Opinion: using a local install of Moodle for courses that will eventually reside in an online/production server can be problematic sometimes (differences in OS and versions and mods/blocks/addons etc.).
Obviously, placing a video on a local server will play very quickly. When the course is moved to the production server, it won't play at the same speed ... can't ... period. That's just one example. Students don't like the experience of the 'world wide wait' - even if good things require some time to 'load up' and play! ;)
Might be best to install a 'sandbox' implementation ON the server and use it for testing/development. One will be using the same environment and network then.
'spirit of sharing', Ken