Apologize??!!! What ever for? We all have questions and we all could use help from time to time. That's what's nice about 'community'. ;)
Assuming you are on a dedicated host (not shared) and the MySQL is running on the same server as the Moodle, the mysqldump command could be shorter:
mysqldump -u [youruser] -p[yourpassword] [DB] > [DB].sql
After running the command, does server report any error?
Not sure you need the host option nor the other options. But, am NOT a DB admin so if there is someone who is and dis-agrees, feel free to jump in! ;)
As far as theme's from 1.9, sorry, but no. Many changes in vr. 2. But, one could install themes and tweak. Some M2 themes do have readme's and directions for how to work with the css/images, etc.. Just have to look around or post specific questions in the Themes area of MDL forums.
'spirit of sharing', Ken