If a quiz is taken, where are the results sent?
the results are sent back to Moodle
what files are updated etc for the database to recieve and store the results?
no files are updated. The database is updated. To be precise the results are broken up and stored among the following tables:
What files are accessed in order for the database to return these results?
No files are accessed. The database is accessed. The results are recreated from the tables mentioned above.
I must know the technical steps that are taken by Moodle in order for the teacher/pupil to access the results.
I have given an overview above, but I don't think I have time to explain all the gory details. You may be better off finding a programmer in your locality who can look at the scripts and explain to you what is going on. When the rush of producing the initial release of this module is over, I may have time to sit down and write a technical description of how it works, but I am a little "stressed out" myself at the moment , so I am sorry but that is the best I can do at this time.