Yes and no
This is a good question. I hope some math teachers will also jump in.
Consider this post as an overview by a non-math teacher, who understands most of the mechanics but does not set up real adaptive courses on a regular basis.
In a Lesson Module Activity the teacher can set the jumps for any answer in a question page (except essay and multianswer question types) or for any button in a branch table. At the moment the jump is restricted to the current lesson (that is the "no", when "an earlier lesson" means "another Lesson Activity Module"). Now for the "yes".
In the area of Math, it is possible to have a student's fill in answer evaluated by a series of ranges. The Numerical question type
page needs some editing for those using it in a Lesson. In short, each range is a single answer and the teacher can set a jump for that answer. Since each range is an answer, each range can have it's own mark when custom scoring is turned on in the Lesson Activity Module.
The Lesson Activity Module from the teacher's viewpoint can be made up of a series of teaching goals. These could be called lessons but I am going to call them subjects. By using a "Simple" branch structure
within a single Lesson Activity Module for each of the subjects, along with understanding jumps you might meet your goal.
It is possible to put HTML linking
to other Resources or Activities
(including Lesson Module Activities) in the content of a question or branch table page. Example: "For more help via flash presentation click on one or more of the links below".
In Moodle 2.0 there will be a Conditional activities
that has range limits for an activity. This has a more robust matrix than the "greater than", Lesson Activity Module's dependency setting or the contributed code/hack for 1.9 called Activity Locking
for activities and resources.
Moodle 2.0 is still in development. Quiz questions and Lesson question types
are different and I am not sure (my ignorance and my lack of seeking information) that all the Question types are or will be supported via Question bank
in both Lesson and Quiz.
The real issue for me in any adaptive learning system is keeping track of all those paths. How does the special student "reach the end" when they are sent off the beaten path. First is it friendly for the student and second how easy is it for the teacher. In any learning system, adaptive learning requires a lot of planning, experience and anticipation by the good teacher, especially when it is done via technology
Hope this helps with your decision process. I put in lots of links instead of more words. Chris